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WGU ELO1 (Subject-Specific Pedagogy)
Terms in this set (58)
Two Way Immersion/Dual Language
A Native English speaking group and a non-English group, are both taught academic content in both languages for an extended period of time. Helps develop academic proficiency in both languages
Transitional Bilingual Education
ELLs receive academic instruction for their first language for part of the day. For the remainder of the day, they receive ESL taught traditionally, with the focus on language plus some mainstream classes. As English proficiency increases ,instruction through the first language decreases. Lasts 2-4 years.
Students attend mainstream classes for much of the day and also meet seperately for about 3-10 hours a week in small gourps with an ESL instructor who focuses on language development.
ELLs receive ESL instruction, taught by and ESL licensed teacher, in preparation for grade-level content instruction in English. The emphasis is still on language development, but augmented with academic subject matter vocabulary and beginning concepts.
Sheltered English Instruction
ELLs are taught academic content in English by a content licensed teacher. However, the English language used for instruction is adapted to the proficiency level of the students. While the instruction focuses on content, sheltered English instruction also promotes English language development.
Structured English Immersion
ELLs are taught subject matter in English by a content licensed teacher who is also licensed in ESL or bilingual education. The teacher is proficient in the first language of the student. Students may use their native language for clarification, but the teacher uses only English. NO ESL instruction is provided in this model.
Civil Rights Act
No person based on national origin is denied the benefit of federal funded programs
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
-Various grants targeting specific populations called "titles".
-Title 3 is for language instruction for LEP and immigrant students.
Equal Education Opportunities Act
prohibits denying of equal educational opportunities based on race, color, sex, or national origin.
Lau V. Nichols
~Equal treatment doesn't mean providing students with same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculums
~Equal learning opportunities means different enhanced/modified approaches, materials, learning environment to meet learners needs
~Teach in English but 1st language is allowed
Castaneda V. Pickard
~Texas school wasn't providing "Adequate instruction", meaning ESL services based on research, evidence theory and pedagogy, services implemented by trained teachers and appropriate resources, and regular monitoring of program effectiveness with action to modify programs if found ineffective
Office of Civil Rights
~issued specific guidelines and mandates:
1 Qualified ESL teachers and evaluations of them
2 Criteria to exit students from ESL services
3 ESL students who qualify for sped
4ESL students who qualify for gt and other specialized programs.
Plyler v. Doe
Supreme court ruled that regardless of documentation and citizen status, all children deserve free public education
~Schools must provide plan and documents of researched based ESL services
1 Requires annual assessment of EL's language proficiency
2 schools are expected to meet annual measurable achievement objectives as determinded by the state.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: IDEA
~EL's need to be assessed for abilities in the language they are most comfortable with
~Translators must be provided to inform parents and for the EL's to go through testing
~Multiple assessments must be included
home language survey (HLS)
A survey required by the Office of Civil Rights upon a student's admission to a public school to determine the predominant language spoken in the student's home.
Horne v Flores
The Supreme Court declared that federal equal-education laws are concerned with student outcomes, not financial inputs. Though the EEOA requires states to take "appropriate action"26 to help ELs from falling behind their non-EL peers, the Court found that individual states must determine how that obligation will be met, both financially and programmatically.
FERPA (Family Education Rights and Privacy Act)
Schools are prohibited from providing any outside agency—including the Immigration and Naturalization Service—with any information from a student's school file that would expose their 6
Chapter 1: Legal Guidelines | August 2016
undocumented status without first obtaining permission from the student's parents. The only exception is if a court order (subpoena) is served; however, parents may challenge such an order.13
designed to measure people's ability
directly related to language courses in order to establish how successful students or courses are in achieving objectives
used to identify learners' strengths and weakesses
intended to provide information that will help to place a student at the stage or place in a program most appropriate to the student's abilities
Discrete point testing
refers to testing one element at a time, item by item
combines many language elements in the completion of a task
a test which relates one candidate's performance to that of other candidates. We are not told directly what the student can do in the language.
testing which classifies people according to whether or not they are able to perform some task or set of tasks satisfactorily
a selective collection of student work, teacher observations, and self-assessment that is used to show progress over time with regard to specific criteria
procedures for evaluating student achievement or performance using activities that represent lassroom goals, curricula, and instruction or real-life performance
ongoing diagnostic assessment providing information to guide instruction
assessment tasks that require students to construct a response, create a product, or demonstrate applications of knowledge
culminating assessment for a unit grade level, or course of study providing a status report on mastery or degree of proficiency according to identified learning outcomes
providing contextual supports for meaning during instruction or assessment, such as viual displays, classified lists, or tables or graphs.
allows students to construct their own knowledge by enabling them to see possibilities for reflection, redirection and confirmation of their own learning. A key to successful portfolio assessment.
sound from the TV in the background, a lecture in a college classroom, sitting in the audience of a Broadway musical
re-creating language internally to listen to it again
Four friends conversing over dinner, a mother and child speaking to each other
Grammar Translation/Classical Method
Learn grammar rules and then translate sentences
Direct Method/Berlitz Method
Listen, repeat, speak. Use of the L1 is not allowed
Memorize patterns. Based on behaviorist theory.
Teacher is mostly silent as students experiment with language
Students play with language. Goal is to overcome psychological barriers to learning.
Community Language Learning
Students decide what to learn
Focus on communication; students do not produce speech until they have developed receptive language skills
Total Physical Response
Physical component; no explicit grammar instruction
Communicative language teaching
Students use language in multiple contexts. The goal is communication.
Content is the vehicle for language instruction
Learning strategy training
Focus is on the learner
One-way. Transfer of information
Two-way. Everyday listening, maintaining social relations
Focusing on the pieces of what you hear
Use background and schema to infer what you hear
Novice listening goals
Discriminate sounds and syllables, get the gist
Intermediate listening goals
Recognize words in speech stream, identify speaker/topic, find main idea and details
Advanced listening goals
Identify important information, organizational cues
Phonics; reading is a series of steps
Whole language; reading is based on what's already in your head
Doesn't test knowledge, students can't understand because they don't know the culture or language
Instruction in both languages
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