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Spiritual and Cultural Needs of patients in nursing is a ...
relatively new subject. Many years ago, patients were not even told their vital signs, now they have a right to know.
What is "CULTURE"
Non-physical traits, such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and customs that are shared by a group of people and passed from one generation to another.
guides behavior, is adapted or remains constant only as these satisfy needs of the group, and is learned. "Language is the primary means of
minority groups typically do not have the same power as the majority, though this is sometimes not quite right. There are a lot more nurses than doctors in this country, but doctors have a lot more power than nurses.
A group of people who are members of a larger cultural group. The group has certain ethnic, occupational or physical characteristics that are common to the larger group.
The elderly, for example, doctors are a subculture, nurses, women, men.
Not the same as race or culture, though they are sometimes used interchangebly.
Many of us here are Hispanic, but not all of us are Columbians (?). Or not all Asians are Chinese.
Sense of identification
Common heritage - the North and South Koreans would identify with each other more than the Japanese.
Belonging from birth or adoption
People who share common values
There are many subgroups, many races, among Latinos. Race has more to do with physical characteristics. There are three main races, white, black, and Asian. A way to categorize subgroups according to specific physical characteristics:
1. Skin pigmentation and hair texture
2. Facial features and height
Assimilation occurs when one value is dropped and the value of the dominant culture is picked up.
Factors Affecting Cultural Sensitivity
Stereotyping - avoid this!
Cultural imposition - be careful not to try to impose your values on others, on your patients.
Cultural conflict - sometimes people may not like you, the nurse, for who you are, and you will have to deal with this an be flexible (let them have a different nurse).
Cultural and Ethnic Influences on Health Care Issues
Gender role - some patients just don't want a male nurse, they are made uncomfortable by this. Esp older women. We can't change this, and this is not our goal, we have to respect this, the patient is always right. There also might be cultural conflict with patient, and the patient might need a different nurse.
Language and communication
Quite an issue with this in South Florida. You may have to resort to sign language! Most hospitals have language rosters of employees who speak various languages, especially when it comes to consent forms. Sometimes the hospital risk manager may have to be involved.
Food and nutrition
You may have to take into consideration income when making diet recommendations. There are cheap and nutritious meal plans.
Take their income into consideration when you make recommendations about their home health care.
Orientation to time
Sometimes certain culture have a ... different sense of time and punctuality. Be sure to say "American Time."
Cultural grouping of persons who through consensus, similarity of occupation, wealth or education develop like status, lifestyle, interests, attitudes...
Belief in a supernatural force that has power over the universe which commands worship and obedience.
A system of beliefs, a comprehensive code of behavior.
The conscious pursuit of any object the person holds as supreme.
Religion: Spiritual Needs
"Prayer, relaxation training and guided imagery..., have been shown to enhance immune function and delay disease progression."
Faith Is Powerful Medicine
More than 1,200 studies: Impact of religion on mental & physical health (bullshit). We can support this if the patient wants it. Better health outcomes: less prone to depression, suicide, addictions, cut across age, gender, culture, geographic boundaries. We can support someone's beliefs even if we don't believe it ourselves.
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