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Exam 1 Chapter 3
Terms in this set (138)
Label the figure.
What is extracellular fluid?
watery fluid that surrounds cells (outside of cell)
Extracellular fluid is also called __________.
What is the cytoplasm made of?
cytosol and organelles
What is cytosol?
fluid in plasma membrane
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
provides physical isolation, provides structural support, monitors the environment, regulates exchange with environment
How does the plasma membrane monitor the environment?
through extracellular fluid which has proteins glycoproteins etc and chemical signaling such as hormones
What materials does the plasma membrane exchange with the environment?
takes in ions and nutrients by transport and eliminates waste and cellular products
What makes up the plasma membrane
lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates
What are the membrane lipids called that are in the plasma membrane?
What is the lipid bilayer?
double layer of phospholipids which contains hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic fatty-acid tails
Where are the hydrophilic heads located?
toward watery fluid
Where are the hydrophobic fatty-acid tails located?
What are the two locations of proteins within a membrane?
integral proteins located within membrane, and peripheral proteins bound to inner or outer surface of membrane
What are the types of proteins found in the plasma membrane?
anchoring proteins, recognition proteins, enzymes, receptor proteins, carrier proteins, channels
What is the function of the anchoring proteins that are found in the plasma membrane?
attach to inside or outside structures
What is the function of the recognition proteins that are found in the plasma membrane?
label cells as abnormal or normal during immune response
What is the function of the receptor proteins that are found in the plasma membrane?
bind and respond to ligands, respond to voltage pressure
What is the function of carrier proteins that are found in plasma membrane?
transport specific solutes through membrane
What is the function of channels proteins that are found in the plasma membrane?
regulate water flow and solutes
What are the 3 types of carbohydrates found on the plasma membrane
proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids
What is the function of the carbohydrates found on the plasma membrane?
What is the function of glycocalyx?
lubricate and protect, anchor and locomotion, immune response, specificity in binding things like receptors
Carbohydrates of the plasma membrane can ______ outside of the cell membrane.
What are the two types of organelles?
non membranous and membranous organelles
Nonmembranous organelles have _______ contact with cytosol.
Membranous organelles have ______ contact with cytosol.
What organelles are non membranous?
cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, proteasomes
What organelles are membranous?
Endoplasmic Reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria
What is the cytoskeleton made of and what is its function?
structural proteins, functions in shaping and strengthening
What are the proteins that make up the cytoskeleton?
microfilament, intermediate filaments, microtubules
What are microfilaments composed of?
made of protein actin
What are intermediate filaments composed of?
proteins called collagen-durable
What is the major function of microtubules?
form spindle apparatus
What are microtubules composed of?
What is the function of microvilli?
increase surface area for absorption
Where is microvilli important?
digestive system especially the small intenstine
What are centrioles made of?
bundles of microtubules
What is the function of centrioles?
form spindle apparatus during cell division
What is the cilia?
small hair-like extensions that beat rhythmically back and forth
What are cilia formed from?
Where are cilia important? and why?
trachea bc they help remove debris
What is the function of cilia?
to move fluids across the cell surface
What is a flagellum?
tail-like projection that protrudes from the cell body
What does the flagellum function in?
Where is flagellum found?
What is the function of free ribosomes?
make proteins for cell
What is the function of fix ribosomes?
make proteins for secretions for other cells to use
Where are fix ribosomes located?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
What are the functions of proteasomes?
continuously destroy unneeded, damaged, proteins
Where are proteasomes found?
in cytosol and nucleus
What are proteasomes?
protein complex containing proteases
What are proteases and what is there function?
enzymes that break down protein and peptides
What are the functions of the Smooth ER
detoxify, synthesize lipids and carbohydrates
What are the functions of Rough ER
synthesize protein and glycoprotein, fold polypeptide protein structures, enclose products in transport vesicles
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
package macromolecules into vesicles
What are vesicles?
bags containing substances like hormones, proteins, etc
What are the types of vesicles?
secretory vesicles, membrane renewal vesicles
What do secretary vesicles do?
modify and package products for exocytosis
What is exocytosis?
spit out stuff bleh
What do membrane renewal vesicles do?
add or remove membrane components
What are lysosomes?
powerful enzyme containing vesicles
What is the function of lysosomes?
clean up inside cell by breaking down large molecules, attacking bacteria, recycling damaged organelles, ejecting wastes by exocytosis
What is significant about lysosomes?
they are autolysis which means they can self destruct if damaged
What is the function of peroxisomes?
produce hydrogen peroxide, detoxify several toxic substances such as alcohol
Where are peroxisomes abundant?
What is the function of mitochondria?
What happens in glycolysis?
glucose is converted to pyruvic acid
Where does glycolysis take place?
Does the mitochondria need oxygen in cellular respiration?
Why do we have to exhale?
because in the krebs cycle pyruic acid is converted to CO2
Where does the krebs cycle take place?
matrix of mitochondria
Where is the Electron Transport Chain located?
inner mitochondrial membrane
What are the function of the nucleus?
cell's control center or biosynthetic center
What is the nucleus made up of?
nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, nucleolus
What is the purpose of nuclear pores?
What is the nucleoplasm?
fluid containing ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and some RNA
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Relate the nucleus to proteins
Nucleus contains chromosomes,chromosomes contain DNA,DNA stores genetic instructions for proteins, proteins determine cell structure and function
What is transcription?
copies instructions from DNA to mRNA
Where does transcription take place?
What is translation?
ribosome read codes from mRNA and assembles amino acids into polypeptide chain
Where does translation take place?
choosing what goes in and out of cell
nothing can go in or out of cell
Define freely permeable.
anything can go in or out of cell
Define selectively permeable.
certain things can go in or out of cell
Selective permeability restricts materials moving in an out of cell based on what?
size, electrical charge, molecular shape, lipid solubility, hydrophilic, hydrophobic
Hydrophobic is/isn't lipid soluble. Meaning it can/can't pass by simple diffusion. (choose one)
Hydrophilic is/isn't lipid soluble. Meaning it can/can't pass by simple diffusion. (Choose one)
Name substances that are hydrophobic.
Name substances that are hydrophilic.
glucose, any charged substance i.e. ions, big charged molecules like amino acids
How does water enter/exit a cell?
What are the 3 main types of transport?
diffusion, carrier-mediated transport, vesicular transport
Is diffusion a passive or active?
Is carrier mediated transport passive or active transport?
passive or active but needs a protein or carrier
Is vesicular transport passive or active?
In diffusion substances move from a _____ to ______ concentration gradient.
No specific transporters are needed and no energy is needed is the characteristic of what transport?
Gradients of diffusion can be what?
chemical, electrical, or both depending on the molecule
What are the factors affecting the rate of diffusion?
distance the particle has to move, molecules size, temperature, gradient size e.g. steeper gradient is faster, electrical forces e.g. opposites attract, like charges repel
What are the two types of diffusion?
facilitated diffusion, simple diffusion
What is simple diffusion?
substances go through plasma membrane without any help
What is facilitated diffusion? Is ATP used?
substances pass through plasma membrane using carrier proteins or channels , no
What do carrier proteins do in facilitated diffusion?
opens a passage and the substance goes through the protein
What kind of substances pass through the cell by facilitated diffusion?
What is the rate of facilitated diffusion limited by?
its saturation limit i.e. limited by the number of carrier proteins there are
diffusion of water across the cell membrane
What is osmotic pressure?
the force needed stop oppose movement of water
What is osmolarity
the measure of total concentration of solute particles
What is tonicity?
the ability of a solution to cause a cell to shrink or swell
What is an isotonic solution?
solution with the same solute concentration as the cytosol
What is a hypertonic solution?
solution having more solute concentration than cytosol
What is a hypotonic solution?
solution having lesser solute concentration than cytosol
A cell in a hypotonic solution will...
gain water and cell may rupture
A cell in a hypertonic solution will...
lose water and cell may shrink
What happens when solutes can enter or exit cells during osmosis?
the hydrophilic solutes will move across membrane by simple diffusion until its equilibrated but it will mess up water homeostasis
Active transport moves substrates ______ concentration gradient i.e. from _____ to ____ concentration
against, low, high
Active transport requires ____ to move ions
ATP and exchange pump
What are the ions that exchange pump of the active transport moves?
Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+
Explain what this picture means in terms of active transport. Look at ch. 3 notes or slide 39 of ch. 3
Explain what this picture means in terms of increasing permeability membrane in active transport.
What is significant about the secondary transport which gives it its name.
uses ATP but it doesn't fuel the pump directly rather it uses energy stored in sodium
What drives the secondary transport?
atp indirectly and a sodium electrochemical gradient which drives the transport of glucose; although both are transported at same time sodium drives transport
What pumps Na+ back out and K+ in during secondary active transport?
What happens in vesicular transport or bulk transport?
materials move into or out of cells in vesicles
What are the two types of vesicular transport or bulk transport?
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
What is endocytosis?
active transport where materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane
What are the 3 types of endocytosis?
Receptor mediated, pinocytosis, phagocytosis
What is receptor mediated endocytosis?
cells takes up ligands bound to receptors forming a vesicle
What are receptors?
proteins which change shape when ligand binds
What is phagocytosis?
engulf large objects in phagosomes
What is pinocytosis?
endosomes drink extracellular fluid
What produces low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
receptor mediated endocytosis
LDLs are also known as
Why do cells have a certain voltage?
to help them communicate i.e. a battery must have a certain charge to work thus the ability to have charge allows cells to communicate
A hyper polarized cell is more ________.
A depolarized cell is more _______.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
A&P Systems overview
Exam 1 Chapter 2
Exam 1 Chapter 4
Exam 2 Chapter 5
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