Approx. 2.5cm wide + 7m long. Arranged in series of orderly loops. Divided into 3 parts.
shorter than small intestine, but twice the diameter. main use is reabsorption of water and production of vitamin B and K. has three sections
a one-way digestive tract that makes possible the seperation of digested and undigested food. (also known as GI tract)
forms a bolus (ball) out of the chewed food + pushes it to the back of the mouth into the pharynx
inner layer called the mucosa, allows for smooth movement of food. Bolus activates stretch receptors which in turn activate smooth muscles that start peristalsis
major means of propulsion (adjacent segments of the alimentary canal relax and contract)
The first main layer. This consists of an epithelium, the lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue and which has gastric glands in it underneath, and a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae.
a double layer of peritoneum; holds organs in place, sites of fat storage, provides a route for circulatory vessels and nerves
Regulates movement of food into stomach and helps to prevent it from going back into the esophagus.
located between stomach and small intestine, controls the movement of partially, digested food.
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by physical and chemical means
a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine
the passage through which food passes, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus.
This layer lies over the mucosa and consists of fibrous connective tissue, separating the mucosa from the next layer. The Meissner's plexus is in this layer (blood and lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers)
Over the submucosa, this area in the stomach differs from that of other GI organs in that it has three layers of smooth muscle instead of two.
This layer is over the muscularis externa, consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum.
is a pouch, connecting the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine (it is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve) and is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
They are small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon and upper part of the rectum.
are three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons. (teniae coli contracts length wise to produce the haustra, the bulges in the colon)
(from Latin ānus meaning "ring", "circle") is the external opening of the rectum. (its closure is controlled by sphincter muscles)
prepares food for chemical digestion
Chewing, churning food in stomach, segmentation
complex molecules broken down to chemical components; in Mouth, Stomach and Small intestine
two layers of the muscularis externa
Circular muscularis—inner layer
Longitudinal muscularis—outer layer
attaches liver to lesser curvature of stomach
(one of the two layers of the mesentary)
a "fatty apron" of peritoneum, small intestine to posterior abdominal wall. (one of the two layers of the mesentary)
shorthand; way to indicate number and position of teeth
2I, 1C, 2P, 3M (incisor, canine, premolar, molar
what do salivary glands produce?
Produce saliva ( water, ions, mucus, and enzymes), to keep mouth moist.
contains the areas: Oropharynx and laryngopharynx
it is the passages for air and food; lined with stratified squamous epithelium
is stratified squamous epithelium ( adapted for constant abrasion) has mucous glands, muscularis externa (Skeletal muscle) first third of length, differ from other areas: Adventitia—most external layer
on internal surface of the stomach, with numerous longitudinal folds, which flattens as the stomach fills
narrow tube like structures, mucosa dotted with them; gastric juice is secreted from gastric glands, which are located in them