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96 terms

A&P Ch 10 Muscular Sys

STUDY
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Arrangement of the elements is fulcrum-load-effect.
example: wheelbarrow
Stand on tip toe.

a) Second-class lever
b) Third-class lever
c) First-class lever
a) Second-class lever
Humerus -- ulna joint.

a) Second-class lever
b) Third-class lever
c) First-class lever
b) Third-class lever

Arrangement of the elements is
load-efford-fulcrum
example: tweezers and forceps
Flexing the forearm by the biceps brachii muscle.
Tibia -- calcaneus joint.

a) Second-class lever
b) Third-class lever
c) First-class lever
a) Second-class lever

Arrangement of the elements is fulcrum-load-effect.
example: wheelbarrow
Stand on tip toe.
Humerus -- metacarpal joint.

a) Second-class lever
b) Third-class lever
c) First-class lever
c) First-class lever

Arrangement of the elements is
load-fulcrum-effort.
example: scissors
Raises your neck off your chest.
Arrangement of the elements is
load-fulcrum-effort.
example: scissors
Raises your neck off your chest.

a) Second-class lever
b) Third-class lever
c) First-class lever
c) First-class lever
The action of lifting a shovel of snow.

a) Second-class lever
b) Third-class lever
c) First-class lever
b) Third-class lever
Arm abduction and rotation

a) Sternocleidomastoid
b) Pectoralis major
c) Pectoralis minor
d) Coracobrachialis
e) Serratus anterior
b) Pectoralis major
Prime mover to protract and hold the scapula against the chest wall; rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward.

a) Sternocleidomastoid
b) Pectoralis major
c) Pectoralis minor
d) Coracobrachialis
e) Serratus anterior
e) Serratus anterior
A muscle that has its origin on the manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle, and its insertion in the mastoid process of the temporal bone.

a) Sternocleidomastoid
b) Pectoralis major
c) Pectoralis minor
d) Coracobrachialis
e) Serratus anterior
a) Sternocleidomastoid
With ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and downward; with scapula fixed, daws rib cage superiorly.

a) Sternocleidomastoid
b) Pectoralis major
c) Pectoralis minor
d) Coracobrachialis
e) Serratus anterior
c) Pectoralis minor

pectus = chest, breast
minor = lesser

Origin: anterior surfaces of the ribs 3-5 (or 2-4)
Insertion: coracoid process of scapula
The smallest of the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process of the scapula.

a) Sternocleidomastoid
b) Pectoralis major
c) Pectoralis minor
d) Coracobrachialis
e) Serratus anterior
d) Coracobrachialis

The Coracobrachialis is the smallest of the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process of the scapula. (The other two muscles are pectoralis minor and biceps brachii.) It is situated at the upper and medial part of the arm.
Stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates scapula.

a) Levator scapulae
b) Trapezius muscle
c) Rhomboid
d) Teres major muscle
e) Latissimus dorsi
b) Trapezius muscle

trapezion = irregular four-sided figure

Most superficial muscle of poserior thorax; flat, and triangular in shape; upper fibers run horizontally to scapula; lower fibers run superiorly to scapula.
Extends, medially rotates, and adducts humerus.

a) Levator scapulae
b) Trapezius muscle
c) Rhomboid
d) Teres major muscle
e) Latissimus dorsi
d) Teres major muscle

Thick, rounded muscle; located inferior to teres minor; helps to form posterior wall of axilla (along with latissimus dorsi and subscapularis)
Prime mover of arm extension; powerful arm adductor; medially rotates arm at shoulder.

a) Levator scapulae
b) Trapezius muscle
c) Rhomboid
d) Teres major muscle
e) Latissimus dorsi
e) Latissimus dorsi

latissimus = widest
dorsi = back

Broad, flat, triangular muscle of lower back (lumbar region); extensive superfical origins; covered by trapezius superiorly; contributes to the posterior wall of axilla
Rotates scapula.

a) Levator scapulae
b) Trapezius muscle
c) Rhomboid
d) Teres major muscle
e) Latissimus dorsi
b) Trapezius muscle

trapezion = irregular four-sided figure

Most superficial muscle of poserior thorax; flat, and triangular in shape; upper fibers run horizontally to scapula; lower fibers run superiorly to scapula.
Retracts scapula.

a) Levator scapulae
b) Trapezius muscle
c) Rhomboid
d) Teres major muscle
e) Latissimus dorsi
d) Teres major muscle

Thick, rounded muscle; located inferior to teres minor; helps to form posterior wall of axilla (along with latissimus dorsi and subscapularis)
Elevates/adducts scapula.

a) Levator scapulae
b) Trapezius muscle
c) Rhomboid
d) Teres major muscle
e) Latissimus dorsi
a) Levator scapulae

levator = raises

Located at back and side of neck, deep to trapezius; thick, straplike muscle.
Flexes the wrist.

a) Flexor digitorum profundus
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris
c) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
d) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris

flex = decrease angle between two bones.
ulnar = ulna
carpi = wrist

Powerful flexor of wrist; also adducts hand.
Most medial muscle of this group; two headed; ulna nerve lies lateral to its tendon.
Slow-acting finger flexor

a) Flexor digitorum profundus
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris
c) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
d) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis
a) Flexor digitorum profundus

profund = deep

Flexes distal interphalangel joints.
Powerful wrist flexors that also stabilize the wrist during finger extension.

a) Flexor digitorum profundus
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris
c) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
d) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris
Extends and abduts the wrist.

a) Flexor digitorum profundus
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris
c) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
d) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis
c) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

extend = increase angle between two bones.
brevis = short
radialis = radias
Extends the thumb.

a) Flexor digitorum profundus
b) Flexor carpi ulnaris
c) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
d) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis
d) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis

Deep muscle pair with a common origin and action.
Muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle.

a) Antagonist
b) Agonist
c) Synergist
d) Fixator
A) Antagonist

= against the leaders
Muscle that stabilizes the origin of another muscle.

a) Antagonist
b) Agonist
c) Synergist
d) Fixator
d) Fixator

When synergists immobilize a bone or a muscle's origin so that the prime mover has a stable base in which to act, they are more specifically called fixators.
Muscle that is primarily responsible for bringing about a particualr movement.

a) Antagonist
b) Agonist
c) Synergist
d) Fixator
b) Agonist

or prime mover = leader
Muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement.

a) Antagonist
b) Agonist
c) Synergist
d) Fixator
c) Synergist

syn = together
erg = work

Synergists help prime movers by
1) adding a little extra force to the same movement or
2) reducing undesirable or unnessary movements that might occur as the prime mover contracts.
A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever.

True / False
False

1st class lever = scissors
2nd class lever = wheelbarrel
3red class lever = tweezers
Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage.

True / False
False

1st and 3rd operate at a mechanical disadvantage.

2nd operate at a mechanical advantage.
Standing on your toes.
Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same.

True / False
False

Fascicle - bundle of nerve or nerve fibers bound together by connective tissue.
Muscles are only able to pull, they never push.

True / False
True
Regardless of type, all levers follow the same basic principle; effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage; effor nearer than load to fultrom = mechanical disadvantage.

True / False
True
Movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to thepelvic girdle.

True / False
True
The biceps brachii inserts on the radius.

True / False
True
The chewing muscle covering the ramus of the mandible is the buccinator.

True / False
False

buccinator = cheek or trumpeter

Deept to masseter.
O -- molar region of maxilla and mandible.

Buccinator is the chewing muscle.
The deltoid is a prime mover of the arm taht acts in adduction.

True / False
False

adduction - movement of a limb toward the midline.

abduction - movement of a limb away from the midline or axis of the body.

Prime mover of arm abduction when all its fibers contract simultaneously.
The soleus is a synergist of the gastrocnemius during plantar flexion.

True / False
True

soleus = fish
soleus - broad, flat muscle, deep to the gastrocnemius on posterior surface of a calf. Runs parallel to the gastrocnemius.

gastrocnemius - belly of calve
Muscles that help to maintain posture are often called synergists.

True / False
False

Muscles that help to maintain upright postures are fixators.
In order to propel food down to the esophagus, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles are used.

True / False
True

Constrict pharynx during swallowing.
Plantar flexion at the ankle joint is accomplished by the tibialis anterior muscle.

True / False
False

Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot; assist in supporting medial longitudinal arch of foot.
The arangement of a muscle's fascicles determines its range of motion and power.

True / False
True
Muscle power does not depend on the direction of the fascicles.

True / False
True
The calcaneal tendon (Archilles tendon) is the largest, strongest tendon in the body.

True / False
True
The epicranius or occipitofrontalis has two bellies, the frontal and occiptal.

True / False
True
Electromyography is the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles.

True / False
True
Severing of the patellar tendon would inactivate the hamstring group.

True / False
False

Hamstrings are the fleshy muscles of the posterior thigh.
The broadest muscle fo the back is the latissimus dorsi.

True / False
True

Latissimus = widest
dorsi = back
Muscle spasms of the back often are due to the erector spinae contraction.

True / False
True

Prime mover of back extension.

Provides resistance that helps control action of bending forward at the waist and act as powerful extensors to promote return to erect position.
Muscles connecting to the hyoid bone are important for swallowing and speech.

True / False
True
The muscles of facial expression insert into skin or other muscles, not bones.

True / False
True
Which type of lever is demonstrated by using scissors?

a) a first-class lever
b) a second-class lever
c) a third-class lever
d) a fourth-class lever
a) a first-class lever
What muscle is repsonsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking?

a) extensor digitorum
b) tibialis anterior
c) extensor hallucis longus
d) fibularis tertius
d) fibularis tertius

fibular = fibula
tertius = third

dorsoflexes and everts foot.
What is the major factor controlling how levers work?

a) the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever
b) the weight of the load
c) the direction the load is being moved
d) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
d) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
Which of the following describes fascicle arrangement in a pennate muscle?

a) the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle.
b) The fascicular patern is circular.
c) The fascicles form a triangle.
d) the fascicles are in a fusiform arrangement.
a) the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle.
Which is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?

a) the length
b) the shape
c) the number of neurons innervating it
d) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
d) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?

a) a synergist
b) an agonist
c) an atagonist
d) a fixator
b) an agonist
When the term biceps, triceps, aor quadriceps forms part of a muscle's name, what does it tell you about the muscle?

a) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.
b) the muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, respectively
c) The muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively.
d) The muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively.
a) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body?

a) There are approximately the same number of muscles as bones: 206
b) There are approximately 350 muscles in the body.
c) There are over 600 muscles in the body.
d) If one considers the very tiny, insignificant muscles, there are over 1000 muscles in the body.
c) There are over 600 muscles in the body.
The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. What does the term levator mean?

a) The muscle flexes and rotates a region.
b) The muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint.
c) The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.
d) The muslce functions as a synergist.
c) The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.
Which of the following descibes the suprahyoid muscles?

a) they depress the larynx and hyoid bone if the mandible is fixed.
b) They are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity
c) They move the pharynx superiorly during swallowing.
d) they are often called strap muscles.
b) They are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity
The supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of the scapula above the spine. What is its action?

a) to help hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity and rotate the humerus laterally
b) to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward locaiton of the humerus and to assist in abduction
c) to extend and medially rotate the humerus and to act as a synergist of the latissimus dorsi
d) to flex and adduct the humerus and to act as a synergist of the pectoralis major
b) to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward locaiton of the humerus and to assist in abduction
the extensor carpi radialis brevis ___.

a) extends and abducts the wrist and is short
b) extends and adducts the wrist and has a small tendon
c) supinates the forearm and is a superficial muscle
d) extends the thumb and is a deep muscle
a) extends and abducts the wrist and is short
What are the muscles that are found at openings of the body collectively called?

a) convergent muscles
b) circular muscles
c) parallel muscles
d) divergent muscles
b) circular muscles
Which of the following muscles is involved in producing horizontal wrinkles in the forehead?

a) the medial pterygoid
b) the zygomaticus major
c) the frontal belly of the epicranius
d) the emporalis
b) circular muscles
A cute, little curly-haired child is sitting behind you in church. You turn around for a moment and she sticks her tongue out at you. Which tongue muscle did she use?

a) orbicularis oris
b) stylohoid
c) hyoglossus
d) genioglossus
d) genioglossus

geni = chin
glossus = tongue
Which group of muscles flexes and rotates the neck?

a) the scalenes
b) the iliocostalis
c) the spinalis
d) the splenius
a) the scalenes

scalene = uneven

Elevate the first two ribs (aid in inspiration); flex and rotate neck.
Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position?

a) the gastrocnemius
b) the sartorius
c) all of the hamstrings
d) the quadriceps femoris
b) the sartorius

sartor = tailor

flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee; produces the cross legged position.
Which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon?

a) the semitendinosus
b) the sartorius
c) the tibialis anterior
d) the gastrocnemius
d) the gastrocnemius

gaster = belly
kneme = leg

Inserts at posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon.
Which of the following does not compress the abdomen?

a) internal oblique
b) external oblique
c) transversus aabdominis
d) coccygeus
d) coccygeus
A muslce group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(an) ___.

a) antagonist
b) fixator
c) synergist
d) protagonist
c) synergist
What type of muscle assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stablizing a joint over which an agonist acts?
c) synergist
Which of the following is not a member of the hamstrings?

a) gracilis
b) semitendinosus
c) semimembranosus
d) biceps femoris
a) gracilis

= slender

gracilis - Long, thin, superficial muscle of medial thigh.
Adduct thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg, especially during walking.
A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling. What is this muscle called?

a) platysma
b) masseter
c) zygomaticus
d) buccinator
d) buccinator
Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis.

a) serratus anterior
b) zygomaticus
c) platysma
d) sternocleidomastoid
d) sternocleidomastoid

sterno = breastbone
cleido = clavicle
mastoid = mastoid process

Flexes and laterally rotates the head.
Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?

a) Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones.
b) The bones serve as levers.
c) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
d) the movements produced may be of graded intensity.
c) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?

a) muscle location
b) the type of muscle fibers
c) the type of action they cause
d) muscle shape
b) the type of muscle fibers
Which of the choices below is the major muscle for breathing?

a) diaphragm
b) rectus abdominis
c) latissimus dorsi
d) temporalis
a) diaphragm
Which of the following best describes the orbicularis oris?

a) It closes, purses, and protrudes the lips.
b) It pulls the lower lip down and back.
c) It draws the eyebrows together.
d) It allows blinking, squinting, and various other protective mechanisms for the eye.
a) It closes, purses, and protrudes the lips.
In a pennate muscle pattern ___.

a) muscles appar to be straplike
b) there is a narrow origin diverging to a broad insertion
c) there is a broad origin and fascicles converg toward a single tendon
d) muscles look like a feather
d) muscles look like a feather

penna = feather

The fascicles (and thus the muscle fibers) are short and they attach abliquely.
What aare the levers that operate at a mechanical advantage called?

a ) speed levers
b) power levers
c) functional levers
d) dysfunctional levers
c) functional levers

Should answer be b) power levers?
Tennis players often complain about pain the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions?

a) the triceps brachii
b) the anconeus
c) the brachioradialis
d) the flexor digitorum profundus
c) the brachioradialis

Strong muscle that is immediately deep to biceps brachii on distal humerus.

A major forearm flexor (lifts ulna as biceps lift the radius)
Which muscles is (are) contracted to exhale forceibly?

a) diaphragm alone
b) internal intecostal and rectus abdominus
c) external intercostals and diagphragm
d) rectus abdominis and diaphragm
b) internal intecostal and rectus abdominus

internal intercostals - 11 pairs lie beneath the ribs. Draws rib together and depress rib cage. Aid in forced expiration.

rectus abdominus - medial superficial muscle pair; extend from pubis to rib cage. Flex and rotate lumbar region of the vertebrae column. Fix and depress ribs.
rectus = straight
abdom = abdomen
Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh?

a) biceps
b) vastus medialis
c) soleus
d) iliopsoas and rectus femoris
d) iliopsoas and rectus femoris

iliopsoas - a composite of two closely related muyscles (iliacus adn psoas major) whose fibers pass under the inguinal ligament to insert via a common tendon on the femur.

rectus femoris - superfical muscle of anterior thigh.
First-class levers ___.

a) have load at one end of thelever, fulcrum at the over, and efford applied somewhere in the middle
b) are typified by tweezers for forceps
c) in the body can operate a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
d) are the type found in the joints forming the ball of the foot as used in raising the body on the toes
c) in the body can operate a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?

a) All names reflect direction of muscle fibers.
b) Each acts synergistically to elevate the jaw.
c) All act on the tongue.
d) All names indicate the relative size of the muscle.
c) All act on the tongue.
Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the ___.

a) lateral rotators
b) anterior compartment of the thigh
c) posterior muscle group of the thigh
d) medial compartment of the thigh
d) medial compartment of the thigh

Adductors - large muslce mass consisting of three muscles (magnus, longus, and brevis) forming medial aspects of thigh.
if L=Load, F=fulcrum, and E=effort, what type of lever system is described as LEF?

a) first-class lever
b) second-class lever
c) third-class lever
d) fourth-class lever
c) third-class lever
Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the thigh?

a) tibialis posterior
b) vastus lateralis
c) adductor magnus
d) gluteus maximus
c) adductor magnus

adduct = move towards midline
magnus = large

Anterior part adducts and midially rotates and flexes thigh; Posterior part is a synergist of hamstrings in thigh extension.
Which of the following muscles is involved in inversion at the ankle joint?

a) tibialis anterior
b) extensor digitorum longus
c) peroneus tertius
d) perioneus longus
a) tibialis anterior
Which of the following muscles serves as a common intramuscular injection site, particularly in infants?

a) the vastus intermedius
b) the vastus medialius
c) rectus femoris
d) the vastus lateralis
d) the vastus lateralis

vastus = large
lateralis = lateral

Largest head of the group, forms lateral aspect of the thigh; runs straight down thigh. Extends knee and flexes at hip.
Paralysis of which of the following muscles would make an individual unable to flex the knee?

a) hamstring muscles
b) gluteal muscles
c) brachioradialis
d) soleus
a) hamstring muscles

The hamstrings are fleshy muslces of the posterior thigh. they cross both the hip and knee joints and are prime movers of thigh extension and knee flexion.
Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion?

a) popliteus
b) tibialis posterior
c) flexor digitorum longus
d) gastrocnemius and soleus
a) popliteus
___ is a powerful forearm extensor.
triceps brachii
The ___ is known as the boxer muscle.
serratus anterior
The ___ runs deep to the external oblique.
internal oblique
The ___ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing.
buccinator
The ___ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror.
platysma