NASM Chapter 7
Terms in this set (49)
Refers to the ability to move a joint through its complete range of motion
The ability of the nervous system and muscles to optimally communicate with each other to produce and reduce forces and dynamically stabilize the body
The process of the human body finding a way to accomplish an intended movement, even if the muscles lack the flexibility to correctly perform it
occur when muscles on one side of a joint are either overactive or under active, pulling the joint into a suboptimal position
Natural neuromuscular process that occurs between agonist and antagonist muscles during all joint motions.
In order for the agonist to contract and shorten, the antagonist must relax and lengthen
When the agonist gets its neural signal to contract, the antagonist receives a signal to relax at the same time
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
Caused by an overactive (tight) muscle, decreasing neural drive to its functional antagonist
Occurs when synergists take over function for a weak (underactive) prime mover
Cumulative Injury Cycle
A cycle of protection and repair that leaves the body in a reduced state of neuromuscular efficiency
Injury > tissue trauma > inflammation > muscle spasm > Adhesions (knots in muscle tissue) > Altered neuromuscular control > muscle imbalance
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles to relax
Integrated Flexibility Continuum
Comprised of Corrective flexibility, Active flexibility, Functional flexibility
Used in Stabilization Level of OPT
Clients work to fix movement compensations. Uses a combination of self-myofascial release (SMR) and static stretching
Used in the strength Level of OPT
Combines SMR with active-isolated stretching
Power Level of OPT or warming up for athletic competition
Applied using SMR and dynamic stretching
Self Myofascial Release
Commonly known as foam rolling, it is the one flexibility technique used at every level of the OPT model
Consists of using a foam roll, massage ball, or similar device to locate knots in muscle
The main corrective flexibility technique, should be reserved only for muscles identified as short and/or overactive during the assessment process
Increases tissue extensibility
Works to reduce any latent tightness from previous workouts ensure full range of motion continues to be maintained.
Same exercises as static stretching, but instead of long holds, the client hold each stretch for 1-2 seconds and repeat for 5-10 repetitions
Increases joint range of motion
Uses dynamic stretching techniques: instead of classic stretching, bodyweight exercises that take joint through their full range of motion are used
This not only primes muscle extensibility like active-isolated stretching does, but it also activates the primer mover muscles all throughout the body
Optimally warms up clients for Power Level work or prior to athletic competition
Because of its more intense nature, it can be used as both the flexibility and cardiorespiratory warm-up portions of a workout
Capability to be elongated or stretched
Dynamic Range of Motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently
Postural Distortion Patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances
The motion of joints in the body
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
The process by which neural impulses are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stresses on the body
States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress
What should a client foam roll to effectively target the piriformis when performing self-myofascial release?
During an overhead squat assessment, a client's knees move inward. Which of the following exercises is the most appropriate to strengthen and activate the client's underactive musculature?
Tube walking: side to side
Tube walking will strengthen underactive gluteus medius muscles and help improve this movement impairment.
Dynamic stretching uses which of the following concepts to improve soft tissue extensibility?
If a client demonstrates an excessive forward lean during the overhead squat assessment, which of the following muscles should be stretched during the client's warm-up?
Hip flexor complex
Daniel is foam-rolling the piriformis after a workout. What step should he take when he encounters a tender spot?
Hold the spot for 20-30 seconds
What should an individual do when they identify a tender spot in their muscle tissue during a SMR?
Hold it w/ no movement
During a static postural assessment, a personal trainer observes that a client has pronated feet, as well as adducted and internally rotated knees. Which muscles would he or she expect to be shortened?
A client is currently training in the Hypertrophy Phase of the OPT model. Which phase of the flexibility continuum would be the most appropriate?
Which of the following clients would use active-isolated stretching during a warm-up?
Strength Level client
What term refers to the simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist?
Alan is utilizing self-myofascial release for his corrective flexibility protocols. Where should the foam roll be placed for the latissimus dorsi?
Under the arm
Dynamic stretching improves soft tissue extensibility by using which of the following?
What is used to increase the extensibility of soft tissues through both autogenic inhibition and reciprocal inhibition?
Which of the following exercises is also a dynamic stretch?
Single-leg squat touchdown
The active supine biceps femoris stretch uses which physiological principle to increase flexibility?
Which of the following is true about dynamic stretching?
When performing self-myofascial release of the adductors, the focus should be on foam rolling what location on the body?
The groin region inside the upper thigh
How long does pressure need to be held on the tender spot while using self-myofascial release?
30 seconds minimum
Which form of stretching should be used to inhibit muscle spindle activity of a tight muscle before and after physical activity?
Practicing self-myofascial release through the use of a foam roller creates autogenic inhibition by which of the following?
Stimulating the Golgi tendon organ
When performing the static latissimus dorsi ball stretch, which of the following is a correct body position?
Posteriorly rotated pelvis
Which of the following is true about dynamic stretching?
It should be performed at a controlled speed
Internally rotating the back hip during the active kneeling hip flexor stretch places a greater stretch on which of the following muscles?
Contracting the glutes while performing a static standing TFL stretch will cause which of the following effects?
Reciprocal inhibition of the TFL