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World Civ 2 Chapter 21

henry Bessemer

(1813-1898) An English engineer who created the Bessemer procces, a process of producing steel, in which impurities are removed by forcing a blast of air through molten iron.

alfred nobel

Swedish chemist remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the bequest that created the Nobel prizes (1833-1896)

michael faraday

the English physicist nd chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1791-1867)

thomas edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

interchangeable parts

1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.

alessandro volta

In 1800 an Italian built the first battery, a device that provided a steady current of electricity.

assembly line

In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.

gottlieb daimler

German engineer and automobile manufacturer who produced the first high-speed internal combustion engine (1834-1900)

trans-siberian railroad

Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.

orville and wilbur wright

These brothers were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio who built and flew the first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903.

samuel f.b. Morse

A New England artist who created the telegraph by improving on a device developed by Joseph Henry.

nikola tesla

Alternating current supporter, helped Thomas Edison invent various things and perfect his laboratories power system. Immigrant from eastern Europe who invented a number of other things as well.

gugliemo marconi

Italian inventor credited with the invention of the radio


A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts



alfred krupp

inherited a steelmaking business form his father in Germany; bought up coal & iron mines as well as ore-shipping line that fed the steel business; later he & his son acquired plants that made tools, railroad cars, and weapons

john d rockefeller

An American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.

captains of industry

Owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power

robber barons

Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.

germy theory


louis pasteur

A French chemist, this man discovered that heat could kill bacteria that otherwise spoiled liquids including milk, wine, and beer.

robert koch

This was the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus and as a result h could create new vaccines for the disease

joseph lister

English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics (1827-1912)

florence nightingale

-began the reformation of nursing from occupation to profession by establishing the Saint Thomas Hospital School of Nursing in London in 186

george haussmann

Hired by Napoleon III, responsible for rebuilding Paris. Made wider streets (boulevards) which encouraged expansion and caused less traffic. Also built aqueducts, improved sewers, put zoning laws in place, and created open spaces.

urban renewal

Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

louis sullivan

United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)

cult of domesticity

the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house

temperance movement

A social movement, born in the 19th century, to reduce the consumption of alcohol in America. This movement was popular among women, who had to face their husbands and fathers "drinking away" the family savings, and dealt with alcohol related problems such as job loss, violence, and domestic abuse

women's suffrage movement

International Movement of the 1880's, that sought to challenge the legal, political, and economic disabilities towards European and American women. This is historically significant because the women eventually gained the right to vote and the right to hold a job. The extension of enlightenment ideas onto women.

education reform movement

A comprehensive effort made during the 1980s and 1990s to improve schools and the preparation of teachers.

john dalton


atomic theory

(chemistry) any theory in which all matter is composed of tiny discrete finite indivisible indestructible particles

dmitri mendeleyev

Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)

charles lyell

Principles on Geology- the earth is a very old planet that is constantly changing; slowly- gradualism

charles darwin

1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.

origins of species

a book by Charles Darwin where he discusses the theory of "natural selection of spices," where he coined the term "survival of the fittest"

social darwinism

A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.

social gospel of wealth movement

the wealthy should contribute to the poor by means other than handing out money; means of buliding public works like parks, meuseums, libraries, ect.

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