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CHEM CH 11: Hydrocarbons (Test 4 material starts)
Terms in this set (75)
hydrocarbon; can cause plaque buildup in arteries
the majority of molecule is made from carbon and hydrogen; may also have other nonmetals like oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, or a halogen; found in common products
EX: CH4, gas, medicines, shampoos, plastic, perfume
How are the formulas of organic compounds written
carbon is first, hydrogen second, then the other elements
EX: CH4O, C2H7N, C2H4O2
organic compounds typically have...
1. have covalent bonds
2. have low melting and boiling points
3. flammable and combustible
4. not soluble in water
5. particles are molecules
6. nonpolar unless a strong electronegative atom is present
inorganic compounds typically have...
1. mostly metals and nonmetals
2. mostly ions
3. many ionic bonds, some covalent
4. most are polar but a few are nonpolar
5. high melting and boiling ponts
6. low flammability
7. most are soluble unless nonpolar
Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
in organic molecules, carbon always has
4 bonds because of its 4 valence electrons
The simplest organic compound is
only single bonds (alkanes)
alkanes carbon hydrogen formula
109 degree bond angles; shaped like a triangle in ball and stick models
zig zag structure is
Saturated hydrocarbons with carbon atoms joined in a ring
differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms but same molecular formula
EX: Buthane has a branched and straight chain structure
an atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule
methyl, ethyl, propyl, isoporopyl, fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo
fluoro, bromo, chloro, iodo
F-, Cl-, Br-, I-
prefix indicating number of C then suffix of ane plus any substituents
Alkanes with one to four carbons are
gases and are widely used as heating fuels.
2) Alkanes with five to eight carbons are
highly volatile liquids, making them useful as fuels (gasoline).
3) Alkanes with 9−17 carbons are
liquids and are found in motor oils, mineral oil, kerosene, diesel, and jet fuels.
4) Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms,
known as paraffins, are waxy solids at room temperature.
5) Petroleum jelly, or Vaseline, is a semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons, with
more than 25 carbon atoms.
insoluble in water
less dense than water
flammable in air
found in crude oil
Cleaning up an oil spill includes the following processes:
mechanical, chemical, microbiological
—a boom may be placed around the oil so that boats called skimmers can scoop it up and place it in tanks.
—a substance that attracts oil is used to pick up the oil, which is then scraped off into recovery tanks.
—certain bacteria that ingest oil are used to break oil down into less harmful products.
Alkanes with strong C—C bonds
react with oxygen gas to make _________ and __________ in combustion reactions
CO2 and H2O
is the natural gas used to cook our food on gas cooktops and to heat our homes.
used in portable burners to cook food
Alkenes and alkynes are
ane has _____ bonds
Hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
120 degree bond angle
Ethene, C2H4, more commonly called ethylene
is an important plant hormone involved in promoting the ripening of fruit such as bananas
accelerates the breakdown of cellulose in plants, which causes flowers to wilt and leaves to fall from trees
warn an insect of danger
mark a trail
attract the opposite sex
In alkenes and alkynes, the double and triple bonds are (not unsat. question)
very reactive, adding H—H and H—OH to the carbons in the double or triple bond
easily broken, providing electrons to form new bonds
hydrogen atoms add to the carbon atoms of a double bond (H2) or triple bond (2H2) and turn them into single bonds
a catalyst such as Pt, Ni, or Pd is used to speed up the reaction
Adding H2 to double bonds in vegetable oils produces
compounds with higher melting points
solids at room temperature, such as margarine, soft margarine, and shortening
In hydration reactions, an alkene reacts
with water, H—OH, to form an alcohol, and the reaction is catalyzed by a strong acid such as H2SO4
an aromatic compound /benzene
a ring of six C atoms, each bonded to one H atom
a flat ring structure drawn with three alternating double bonds
represented by two structures because the electrons are shared equally among all the C atoms
The benzene ring is also found in some amino acids (the building blocks of proteins).
found in pain relievers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen; and in flavorings such as vanillin.
used as a reactant to make drugs, dyes, and explosives such as TNT (trinitrotoluene).
naming benzene/aromatic compounds
if it is not toulene, aniline, or phenol, then it is _____benzene with the substituents going before
if it is toulene, aniline, or phenol, then it is ________ toulene, aniline, or phenol with substituents going before
Which of the following contains ONLY organic compounds?
A. CH3OH, H2SO4, KCl
B. C4H10, CH3COOH, CH3OH
C. KCl, C4H10, CH3COOH
D. CH3CH2CH2Cl, KCl, NaCl
a. KCl is inorganic
c. KCl is not
d. NaCl and KCl is not
What is the most likely physical state of octane (C8H18) at room temperature?
A. a solid
B. a liquid
C. a gas
D. a semi-solid
2) Alkanes with five to eight carbons are liquid
What is the class of compounds that contains a chlorine group (−Cl) attached to a carbon chain?
Only alkane and yne and halos can have methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, fluro, chloro, bromo, iodo
What property is NOT typical of hydrocarbon compounds?
A. insoluble in water
B. low melting points
C. mostly covalent bonds
have a double bond within a ring structure and
double bond numbers 1 and 2, then the lowest possible number to any substituents present.
Carbon "C" each other
Carbon do not see each other
alkanes with one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms
In an alkene, the double bond
is rigid and does not rotate
holds attached groups in fixed positions
makes cis-trans isomers
contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.
linear arrangement with bond angles of 180°.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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