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Development of the Eye, Pharynx, Tongue, etc...
The development from the Eye till the end of the packet (face).
Terms in this set (93)
What contributes to the retina and optic nerve?
What structures does the surface ectoderm contribute?
lens, lacrimal gland, corneal, and conjunctival epithelium.
The optic vesicle develops as a lateral outgrowth from the developing what?
The Lens Placodes form because of what?
The optic vesicle making contact with the overlying ectoderm induces it to thicken.
What invaginates to form the Optic cup?
The optic vesicle develops the choroid fissure for the passage of what artery?
What layers of the retina does the optic cup give rise to?
pigmented an sensory layers
The optic cup is connected the forebrain by what?
What does the optic stalk become?
After the lens vesicle detaches the surface ectoderm is reconstituted to form what?
How do the fibrous and vascular coats develop?
by local condensation of the mesoderm.
What does the smooth muscle of the iris develop from?
the ectoderm at the margin of the optic cup.
What are occular muscles developed from?
What does the eye lid develop as?
a skin fold above and below eye.
What is Colomba?
failure of the choroidal fissue to close
What is Micro-opthalamia?
too small eye may result from intra-uterine infections. (toxoplasmosis)
What is Anopthalamia?
absence of eye as a result of exposure of the mother to toxic chemicals during pregnancy.
What is congenital cataract?
cloudiness of lens.
What makes up the primitive pharynx?
Where is the pharyngeal or branchial cleft derived from?
Where are the pharyngeal arches derived from?
mesoderm and neural crest.
Where are the pharyngeal pouches derived from?
What are pharyngeal pouches?
a series of bilateral out pocketing from the pharangeal endoderm.
What causes the adjacent mesenchymal tissue to become partially segregated into branchial arches?
What are a series of dorso-ventrally thickened masses on the mesenchymal tissue of the pharynx?
What are each branchial arches supplied with?
aortic arch and a cranial nerve.
What is located between the branchial arches and the surface ectoderm?
The tympanic cavity and auditory tube is derived from which pharyngeal pouch?
The tonsillar fossa is derived from which pharyngeal pouch?
The Parathyroid and Thymus are derived from which pharyngeal pouches?
III and IV
The Ultimobranchial body (parafollicular cells) is derived from which pharyngeal pouch?
What develops as a median endodermal downgrowth from the floor of the pharynx?
What is a median endodermal downgrowth from the floor of the pharynx?
The thyroid bud grows ventrally and caudally and canalized to form what?
What is the foramen cecum of the tongue?
the remnant of the origin of the thyroglossal duct on the floor of the pharynx
The cells of the thyroid follicles are what?
The connective tissue componenets of the the Thyroid gland are derived from what?
the invasion of the surrounding mesoderm
What are pharyngeal clefts?
a series of grooves that demarcate the arches externally
Which cleft forms the external acoustic meatus?
What clefts form the Cervical sinus?
2, 3, 4
What bones are derived from the 1st(Mandibular) Pharyngeal Arch?
Mandible (in part),
Malleus and Incus
What muscles are derived from the 1st(Mandibular) Pharyngeal Arch?
Digastricus (in part)
What nerves innervate the 1st(Mandibular) Pharyngeal Arch?
Mandibular part of Trigeminal nerve
What bones are derived from the 2nd(Hyoid) Pharyngeal Arch?
Hyoid Apparatus (in part),
What muscles are derived from the 2nd(Hyoid) Pharyngeal Arch?
Digastricus (in part),
What nerve innervates the 2nd(Hyoid) Pharyngeal Arch?
What bones are derived from the 3rd Pharyngeal Arch?
Hyoid Apparatus (remaining part)
What muscles are derived from the 3rd Pharyngeal Arch?
Pharyngeal muscles (in part)
What nerve innervates the 3rd Pharyngeal Arch?
What bones are derived from the 4th Pharyngeal Arch?
What muscles are derived from the 4th Pharyngeal Arch?
Pharyngeal and Laryngeal muscles
What nerves innervate the 4th Pharyngeal Arch?
Medullary part of Accessory Neve.
Where do the rostral 2/3rd of the Tongue develop from?
ventral part of the 1st pharyngeal arches.
What are the ventral parts of the 1st pharyngeal arches?
Paired lateral swelling and
median tuberculum impar.
Where does the caudal 1/3rd of the tongue develop from?
The hypobranchial eminence, Pharyngeal arches 2-4, and
root of the tongue
The rostral part of the tongue is lined by what?
The rostral and caudal parts of the tongue are separated by what?
The caudal part of the tongue is lined by what?
The striated muscles of the tongue develop from what?
What 4 nerves innervate the tongue?
What develops as a thickened ridge of the oral ectoderm along the length of the upper and lower jaw?
The dental lamina gives rise to a number of what?
What is the stellate reticulum?
the central core of the enamel cup
The mesenchyme forming the dental papilla has a what origin?
What is the pulp of the tooth formed by?
remaining cells of dental papilla.
Mesenchymal cels located outside of the tooth and in contact with the root differentiate into what?
What ligament is on the outside of the cementum layer?
Where does the Auricle of the External Ear develop from?
swellings on the dorsal side of pharyngeal arches 1 and 2
Where does the External Acoustic Meatus develop from?
1st Pharyngeal cleft
What does the first pharnygeal pouch give rise to in the middle ear?
auditory tube and tympanic cavity
What is the tympanic membrane formed from?
the ectoderm of the first cleft + endoderm of the 1st pouch
What is a thickening of the surface ectoderm at the level of the rhombencephalon?
The optic placode invaginates and detaches to form what?
Otic Vesicle or Otocyst
What does the Otic vesicle develop into?
What does the bony labyrinth develop from?
chondrification and ossification of the surrounding mesoderm
What appears on the face dorsally?
frontal process from mesenchymal cells of forebrain.
What are the Maxillary and Mandibular process?
divisions of the mandibular arch
What are the two ectodermal thickenings covering the oral depression?
What are nasal placode invaginations?
The proliferating regions on either side of the nasal pits are called what?
medial and lateral nasal processes
The maxillary process fuses with the medial nasal process to form what?
What does the fusion fo the mandibular and maxillary process at the corner of the mouth develop into?
What does the groove between the lateral nasal process and maxillary process develop into?
What are abnormalities of the fusion of the maxillary and mandibular process?
What is the branch of embryology concerned with the study of malformations?
What are the causes of Abnormal development?
Genetics and Environment
What are agents in the environment that can cause abnormal development?
What are physical agents that can cause abnormal development?
What are chemical agents that can cause abnormal development?
Vitamin A deficiency (Micropthalmia in pigs)
What are drugs that can cause abnormal development?
Thalidomide in pups
What are Infectious agents that can cause abnormal development?
Panleukopenia virus in kittens.
What is the increasing order of the causes of teratology?
Chromosomal Abnormalities < Mutant Genes < Environmental Agents < Multifactorial inheritance < Unknown
What is the period of maximum sensitivity to abnormal development?
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