NUBPG Ch10 - Codes - Principles & Practice of New Urbanism

Codes are to communities as what is to life?
Conventional zoning ordinances make it difficult to do what?
Deviate from the single-use, auto-oriented development that prevails in the suburbs.
Form-based codes get their name from the fact that they do what?
regulate the 3 dimensional shapes or forms of buildings and the public realm.
Form-based codes focus less on what than do conventional zoning ordinances?
FBCs focus less on a property's use than on factors that determine the character of places such as building frontage and placement.
Codes consist of what four tools?
Regulating Plans
Urban Codes
Architectural Codes
Street Standards
Many FBCs, including the Smart Code, are based on what?
The Transect
True or False: Codes can only be public, not private.
False. Codes can be both public and private. Private codes often take over where public codes leave off. For example, public codes rarely deal with architectural style.
NU codes can be either ____ or ____.
NU codes can be either mandatory or otpional.
Optional codes are usually adopted as what?
An Overlay. this gives the developer the choice of whetehr to adhere to a community's conventional code or to adopt the NU code.
Optional codes are usually easier to adopt, but they offer less what?
Predictability of Outcome
Pattern books can be used as a form of what?
Guidelines are codes without what?
Name seven major problems with existing codes:
- Dispersed uses with few distinct centers
- Spatial separation of all key daily activities
- Excessive land consumption
- Streets designed for cars instead of people
- Lack of convenient, cost effective transit
- Limited choice in housing supply
- Fear of density
Conventional zoning lowers density relative to what?
What the "free market" would provide on its own.

This is according to 'Zoned Out' by Jonathan Levine
Among zoning's initial purpose was...
to prevent the overcrowding of land and avoid undue concentration of population.
Euclid v. Ambler established what?
The constitutionality of municipal zoning. It was clear in defining dense housing as part of the problem to be treated.
In Jonathan Levine's view, smart growth codes increase market choice by doing what?
Counteracting the widespread restrictions on density and mixed use.
Name 8 advantages of FBCs
- Because they are prescriptive rather than proscriptive, they achieve a more predictable physical result.
- Achieve higher comfort level with density because they allow citizens to see what will happen where.
- Encourage independent development because they can regulate development at the scale of the bldg or lot.
- Reflect a diversity of architecture, materials, uses and ownership.
- Work well in established neighborhoods because they effectively define and codify a neighborhood's existing DNA (vernacular).
- Non-professionals find FBCs easier to use.
- FBCs obviate the need for design guidelines and need less oversight by discretionary review bodies.
- Purpose is to shape a high quality public realm
FBCs have the potential to level the playing field between what?
Cities and Suburbs
FBCs should include what?
- Regulating plan
- Use standards
- Urban regulations controlling public aspects of private bldgs
- Architectural regulations
- Street design standards
- Landscape standards

Pattern books can be substituted for urban architectural codes.
Since optional codes often go unused, a better strategy is to do what?
Alter the conventional zoning documents or discard them altogether.
Regulating plans are what?
They are site-specific and analogous to PUD master plans, which become part of zoning maps.
What do regulating plans do?
They divide the community into T zones.
What do regulating plans include?
They include a street layout which is probably the most universally recognized characteristic of NU.
Urban regulations/codes create what?
Spatial definition or "outdoor rooms" that are vital to coherent neighborhoods and well formed downtowns.
What are some important elements in shaping outdoor rooms?
- Building Spacing
- Building Height
- Placement of Parking (lots & garages)
- Size of Open Spaces
The biggest parts of cities or towns are in what T zone?

T4 is organized much more tightly than conventional suburbia because there is still a desire to define the public realm.
In T3, outdoor rooms give way to what?
The feeling of nature.

Trees are more likely to be the means of spatially defining the street.
What do 'object' buildings do?
They stand out from their surroundings and give designers and opportunity to create new forms, free of constraints.

An example is the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.
Architectural codes do what?
They help provide a consistency of style.
If everything else is right and the street standards are wrong, the ____ can fall apart.
If everything else is right and the street standards are wrong, the urbanism can fall apart.
When was the original pattern book created?
Ancient Rome when the architect Vitrivius created the first known guidelines for design of bldgs and streets.
Architectural codes typically set ___, while pattern books offer ____ or sometimes ____ ____.
Architectural codes typically set parameters, while pattern books offer options or sometimes specific plans.
Pattern books do not have what?
The force of law, but builders must usually agree to abide by the guidelines when they sign a contract with a developer.
The Smart Code does not contain any of these.
Regulating Plans

It does provide a coherent framework to guide the creation of these plans.
In an FBC, it is preferable to regulate the number of what rather than what?
It is preferable to regulate the number of stories not the building height.
If officials insist on regulating the total building height, how should it be measured.
Height should be measured to the cornice, eave, or base of the parapet.

This will allow a variety of roof forms. If the measurement is to the top of the roof ridge, builders will tend to use flat or low-sloped roofs that may be out of character with the community.
New Jersey's Rehabilitation Subcode is based on what?
They type of work done. To the extent that work is repair, alteration, or renovation, different standards apply.
Rhode Island's Rehabilitation Code that took effect in 2002, reflects what?
A national movement toward simplifying the codes that regulate changes to existing buildings.