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Speaking Out Glossary 2014
Definitions of words for the Speaking Out Unit. Where possible definitions have been used from the NSW Syllabus for the Australian curriculum, English K-10 Syllabus Yrs 7-10.
Terms in this set (41)
A true story. Prose writing that is based on facts, real people and real events.
Influenced by personal opinion, biased.
Undistorted by emotion or personal bias.
One's intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing.
The intended group of readers, listeners or viewers that the writer, designer, filmmaker or speaker is addressing.
The voice adopted by a particular speaker to indicate emotion, feeling or attitude to subject matter.
The author's attitude towards the subject and audience, for example playful, serious, ironic, formal, etc.
The range of personal, social, historical, cultural and workplace conditions in which a text is responded to and composed.
Engages the reader's interest.
Introduces the topic, text(s) and writer's thesis or ideas.
Overview of arguments to be presented.
A summative statement that provides a proposition reached after considering the evidence and arguments.
Final paragraph of an essay.
A chance to restate thesis and major arguments/evidence.
May include a recommendation.
Powerful and effective words that convince. Language that is intended to induce the reader to change his/her mind.
Language that creates an emotional response.
Technical Language/ Jargon
(noun) specialized technical terminology; a characteristic language of a particular group.
A question which does not require an (often obvious) answer. It is asked for the sake of emphasis or effect.
Modality is the selection of words used to express how definite we are about something. It can express from being uncertain (low modality) to very certain (high modality). It is used when we are discussing a point of view.
A grammatical category describing verbs that command or request., (adj.) necessary, urgent; (n.) a form of a verb expressing a command or request.
Use of personal pronouns to make the audience feel part of a group. Using words such as "us", "we", "you", "our".
Single words and phrases that distinguish one point in a presentation from another and help listeners follow the speaker's "path".
Use of language which creates pictures in the mind of the reader and appeals to the senses.
These are often figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, personification.
Assists the reader to respond to the text at a deeper level and to experience the ideas and feelings being expressed.
Using more formal words to help create a formal tone in a piece of writing or in a speech. Characterized by a serious tone, a careful attention to word choice, longer sentences, and a strict adherence to traditional conventions.
Informal expression of language, characteristic of speech and often used in informal writing. Everyday speech.
The way in which sentences and clauses are structured. Syntax is often described in terms of such elements as subject, verb and object, for example 'Christine (subject) munched (verb) the apple (object)'.
"I" and "Me" standpoint. Personal perspective.
A point of view that directly addresses the reader by using "you".
A deliberate and implicit reference to a person or event, or a work of art which draws on knowledge and experiences shared by the composer and responder.
Repeat exact words of another person; stating what someone else said, often from a famous person or well known person. Used to help persuade readers of what is being said.
Data or proof that supports an argument.
The quality of being funny
A clash between what the words say and what they mean. Irony has three forms:
rhetorical irony - saying something contrary to what is meant, for example 'I had a great time' (I was bored)
dramatic irony - stating or doing something unaware of its contrast with the real situation, for example where the reader or watcher knows disaster is about to befall a character who says 'I've never been happier'
situational irony where events are opposite to expectations.
The use of one or more of exaggeration, humour, parody, irony, sarcasm or ridicule to expose, denounce and deride folly or vice in human nature and institutions. The emphatic feature of these language devices draws attention to what is being criticised.
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humour.
Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis.
A contradiction or dilemma.
Putting two contradictory words together (as in 'deafening silence').
The placement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases or words side-by-side for a particular purpose, for example to highlight contrast or for rhetorical effect.
Symbolic methods that aim either to elicit an emotion or to engage the audience's loyalties or commitments.
Statements that can be proved true.
An informal language used in place of standard words.
An inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive.
A comparison demonstrating the similarities between two things, people or situations. It is a device to clarify an idea through a connection. Analogies are often used in persuading, explaining or arguing a point.
Numbers that represent facts.
The opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.
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