relocating business processes, such as development and production, to lower-cost locations in other countries.
the use of components or labor from outside suppliers .
analyzes a company's data to determine the most effective way to collect and store it
designs and tests new hardware products, such as computer chips, circuit boards, computers, and peripheral devices.
creates documentation for large programming projects and writes the online or printed user manuals that accompany computers, peripheral devices and software.
takes a disciplined approach to developing software that is reliable, efficient, affordable, user-friendly, and scalable.
plans, installs, and maintains one or more local area networks.
(value-added reseller) a value added reseller combines commercially available products with specialty hardware or software to create a computer system designed to met the needs of a specific industry.
contains information that is outside normal or acceptable ranges. (miscellaneous? )
combines groups or totals data. (more organized then exception)
Ad Hoc Report
Sometimes called a demand report. is a customized report, generated to supply specific information not available in scheduled reports.
Decision Support System
(dss) helps people make decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of various scenarios
sometimes referred to as a knowledge-based system is a computer system designed to analyze data and produce a recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules.
uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information learn and remember.
(program Evaluation and review technique) is a method for analyzing the time needed to complete each project task and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project
(work Breakdown Structure) breaks a complex task into a series of subtasks.
uses bars to show the timing of development tasks as they occur over time.
SDLC/Phases of SDLC
(system development life cycle ) planning phase analysis phase design phase.
Centralized vs Distributed Processing
Centralized - data is processed on a centrally located computer. Distributed- processing asks are distributed to servers and workstations.
essentially an "information system in a box" which consists of hardware and commercial software designed to offer a complete information system solution.
ensures that it operates reliably and correctly.
performed to ensure that the modules operate together correctly
ensures that all hardware and software components work together correctly.
database- is a collection of information database model- an underlying structure of a database
Types of Database models
one to many- most common types of relationships in a normalized database many to many-common real life relationship built in a normalized database. broken down to many relationships. (there are many students but each student can be related to many sections and many sections to the students) one to one-not very common. entity that lets you know 2 individual things should be combined into one.(user id has one login and one user)
(database management System) refers to software that is designed to manage data stored in a database.
a repository for data from more than one database.
refers to the process of analyzing existing database information to discover previously unknown and potentially useful information including relationships and patterns
refers to the number of associations that can exist between two record types
a markup language that allows field tags, data, and tables to be incorporated into a web document.
helps database designers create a database structure that can save storage space and increase processing efficiency.
(structured query Language) typically work behind the scenes as an intermediary between the database client software provided to users and database itself.
Create- creates database or table Delete- Remove record from table Insert- add a record Join- use the data from 2 tables Select- saarch for records Update- change data in a field
HIgh Level Vs Low Level Languages
High Level Language- uses command words and grammar based on human languages to provide what computer scientists call a level of abstraction that hides the underlying low level assembly or machine language Low Level- typically includes commands specific to a particular CPU or microprocessor family
1st 2nd 3rd 4th and 5th Generation languages
1.machine languages. 2. assembly language 3. high level languages 4.close to human or natural language 5. based on declarative programming paradigm .
defines certain elements that must be manipulated to achieve a result or goal.
in the context of programming languages, refers to the grammar rules that create valid program statements.
an error that occurs when a computer program is run. Runtime- when a program is running
an error in the logic or design of a program, such as the wrong formula to calculate the area of a round piza
is a notational system for algorithms that has been described as a mixture of English and your favorite programming language.
a subset of the English language with a limited selection of a sentence structures that reflect processing activities.
a graphical representation of the way a computer should progress from one instruction to the next when it performs a task
Programming Control Structures
Selection Control Structure- tells a computer what to do, based on whether a condition is true or false Repetition Control Structure- directs the computer to repeat one or more instructions until a certain condition is met. Sequence Control Structure- changes the order in which instructions are carried out by directing th computer to execute an instructions elsewhere in the program
a template for a group of objects with similar characteristics
class attribute- defines the characteristics of a set of objects public attribute- available for use by any routine in the program private attribute- can be accessed only from the routine in which it is defined
collects input perform calculations etc. activated by a message, can be defined alone with the class they affect
oriented terminology, a method for defining new classes of objects based on the characteristics of existing classes
oriented programming the ability to redefine a method for a subclass also called overloading
(software development kit), a collection of language, specific programming tools
(integrated development environment). a set of programming tools typically including editor, compiler, and debugger packaged into an application for creating programs
(visual Development environment) programming tools that allow programmers to build substantial parts of computer programs by pointing and clicking rather than entering code