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Position of heart:
Extends from the 2nd to the 5th intercostal space; from the sternum to the midclavicular line.
Returns freshly oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart, and the aorta carries it out to the body.
Thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines inner surface of heart chambers and valves.
These valves open during systole (pumping) and allow blood to be ejected from the heart.
Direction of blood flow:
Liver to superior & inferior vena cava to right atrium to right ventricle to pulmonary artery to lungs to pulmonary veins to left atrium to left ventricle to aorta into body.
Effect of respiration:
More to the right heart, less to the left.
Eariler aortic valve closure because of delayed pulmonic valve closure, causing a split S2 sound.
Excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other emergency medical conditions.
Is temporary loss of consciousness and posture, described as "fainting" or "passing out." It's usually related to temporary insufficient blood flow to the brain.
Systole increases by 20 %
Calcification of atrial walls
Ventricular wall thickens
Decrease in skeletal muscle
Blood pressure decreases in the tiemester of pregnancy, due to increase in horomones.
Extra systolic sounds:
Ejection click-aortic & pulmonic stenosis
Aortic prosthetic valve sounds
Extra Diastolic sounds:
Opening snap-mitral stenosis
Mitral prosthetic valve sounds
Third & fourth heart sounds
Summation sound-may hear after exercise
Pericardial friction rub
deficient supply of oxygenated arterial blood to a tissue caused by obstruction of a blood vessel.
Deep Veins -leg:
Run alongside deep arteries and conduct most of the venous return from the legs; femoral & popliteal veins.
Drains deoxygenated blood and waste from the tissues and returns it to the heart; low pressure system.
Return blood to the heart by:
Contracting skeletal muscles
Pressure gradient caused by breathing
Intraluminal valves, which ensure unidirectional flow
Separate vessel system which retrieves excess fluid from the tissue spaces and returns it to the blood stream.
Right Lymphatic Duct:
Drains the right side of the head, neck, arm, and right side of thorax, lung, pleura and liver; then empties into the right subclavian vein,
Functions of lymph system:
Conserves fluid and plasma that leaks out of capillaries
Forms major part of immune system
Absorbs lipids from the intestinal tract
Small oval clumps of lymph tissue located at intervals along the vessels; filter fluid before it is returned to the blood stream.
Upper left quadrant-hidden under ribcage. Four functions:
Destroy old red blood cells; produce antibodies; store red blood cells; filter microorganisms from blood.
a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen. Hyperplasia may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed with benign neoplasia/ benign tumor.
Modified Allen Test:
Used to evaluate adequacy of collateral circulation; occlude both the ulnar and radial arteries.
Doppler Ultrasonic stethoscope:
Used to detect weak peripheral pulses, monitor blood pressure in infants/children, or low blood pressure.
Weak, thready pulse:
1+, hard to palpate, may fade in and out. Associated with decreased cardiac output, peripheral arterial disease, aortic valve stenosis.
Full, boundind pulse:
3+, easily palpable, pounds under fingertips. Associated with exercise, anxiety, fever, anemia, hyperthyroidism.
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