Opening snap-mitral stenosis Mitral prosthetic valve sounds Third & fourth heart sounds Summation sound-may hear after exercise Pericardial friction rub
Patent Ductus Arteriosus:
Congenital heart defect-failure of shunts to close
Atrial septal defect-opening between atria Congenital heart defect
VSD/Tetralogy of Fallot:
Congential heart defect-Abnormal opening in the atrial septum
Persistent tachycardia in newborns
Persisten tachycardia in infants.
Bradycardia in newborns.
Bradycardia in infants.
Coarctation of Aorta:
Narrowing of aorta; congential defect.
Pump oxygenated blood through body.
deficient supply of oxygenated arterial blood to a tissue caused by obstruction of a blood vessel.
Deep Veins -leg:
Run alongside deep arteries and conduct most of the venous return from the legs; femoral & popliteal veins.
Great & small saphenous
Drains deoxygenated blood and waste from the tissues and returns it to the heart; low pressure system.
Return blood to the heart by: Contracting skeletal muscles Pressure gradient caused by breathing Intraluminal valves, which ensure unidirectional flow
Separate vessel system which retrieves excess fluid from the tissue spaces and returns it to the blood stream.
Right Lymphatic Duct:
Drains the right side of the head, neck, arm, and right side of thorax, lung, pleura and liver; then empties into the right subclavian vein,
Drains rest of body and empties into the left subclavian vein.
Functions of lymph system:
Conserves fluid and plasma that leaks out of capillaries Forms major part of immune system Absorbs lipids from the intestinal tract
Small oval clumps of lymph tissue located at intervals along the vessels; filter fluid before it is returned to the blood stream.
Upper left quadrant-hidden under ribcage. Four functions: Destroy old red blood cells; produce antibodies; store red blood cells; filter microorganisms from blood.
Palatine, adenoid & lingual
Important in developing T lymphocytes in children; atrophies after puberty.
a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen. Hyperplasia may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed with benign neoplasia/ benign tumor.
Deposition of fatty plaques on the intima of the arteries.
Peripheral blood vessels grow more rigid with age.
Modified Allen Test:
Used to evaluate adequacy of collateral circulation; occlude both the ulnar and radial arteries.
Doppler Ultrasonic stethoscope:
Used to detect weak peripheral pulses, monitor blood pressure in infants/children, or low blood pressure.
Weak, thready pulse:
1+, hard to palpate, may fade in and out. Associated with decreased cardiac output, peripheral arterial disease, aortic valve stenosis.
Full, boundind pulse:
3+, easily palpable, pounds under fingertips. Associated with exercise, anxiety, fever, anemia, hyperthyroidism.
Water-Hammer (Corrigan's) pulse:
3+, greater than normal force, then collapses suddenly.
A sac formed by dilation in the artery wall. Most common site-aorta; most common cause is atherosclerosis.