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what they study
-cognition refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
-thinking involves a number of mental activities such as concepts, problem solving, decision making, and judgement formation
-a mental grouping of similar objects, events or people
-we form some concepts with definitions [a triangle has three sides]
-we mostly form concepts with mental images or typical examples
-a typical example used to form a concept [a robin, not a penguin is a prototype for a bird]
-a best example of a category of objects, events, or people
-very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. computers use these.
-a methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems
-make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems
-simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgements efficiently
- who is more likely to read poetry? the college professor or the truck driver?
-refers to our tendency to judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype
-refers to our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered
-cities of ugly/fat, pretty people?
-refers to the tendency to underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgements are erroneous
-decisions and judgements may be significantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed
-explanations we develop to explain our experiences become fixed beliefs, even when they are shown to be based on wrong evidence
-encouraging people to explain why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote belief perseverance
-the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations
-whatever the intelligence test measures "school smarts"
Alfret Binet and Theodore Simon
-practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by devoloping questions that would predict children's future progress
-adapted Binet's test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test
-created the Intelligence Quotent [IQ] formula
IQ= --------- X 100
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS]
-measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence designed to assess clinical and educational problems
Normal Curve [bell curve]
-standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern
-mentally retarded are 70 and high intelligence is 135
-proposed the idea that intelligent behavior is generated by a single, unitary quality within the human mind or brain
General Intelligence or g Factor
-spearman called general intelligence this
-factor analysis demonstrated that cores on all mental tests are positively correlated
-supports the idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms. he notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others.
Multiple Forms of Intelligence
-a developmental disability and a spectacular, genius-level skill in a specific area
-a professor at Yale and the author of Successful Intelligence
-"the concept of successful intelligence contrasts with the more narrow academic intelligence measured by IQ tests and other standardized examinations"
A. perceive emotion- recognize emotions in faces, music, and stories
B. understand emotion- predict emotions, how they change and blend
C. manage emotion- how to express emotions in different situations
D. use emotion- utilize emotions to adapt or be creative
Theories of motivation
a) instinct theory [instincts] and evolutionary psychology
b) drive reduction theory; need, drive, incentive
c) optimum arousal
d) hierarchy of motives; Abraham Maslow, Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology
-instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned
-since darwin, human behaviors have been classified as instincts. but, instincts dont explain the 'why?' of human behavior
Drive Reduction Theory
-a physiological need creates an aroused tension state [a psychological drive] that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
-an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a drive.
-incentives [external] are positive or negative environmental stimuli that motivate our behavior
-push of needs [hunger pushes us to food]
-pull of incentives [buy one get one free pulls to a restaurant]
-human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive
1) we are motivated to do more than just satisfy our biological needs
2) we are driven to experience stimulation, bypass boredom and obtain optimum arousal
Hierarchy of Motives
-Self actualization needs
need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential
need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others
-belongingness and love needs
need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation
need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable
need to satisfy hunger and thirst
-suggested that certain needs have priority over others
-physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition
Washburn's study on the physiology of hunger
-stomach contractions [pangs] send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger
-washburn swallows balloon, which measures stomach contractions then washburn presses key each time he feels hungry
-hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed
serotonin- the level in the brain is increased by a diet high in carbohydrates
carbohydrates- consumption of these are most likely to reduce tension and anxiety
universal for sweets
-eating these increases our desire for more: psychologically the door opens for more novel food options
-a condition in which a normal weight person [usually an adolescent woman] continuously loses weight but still feels overwieght
- a disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise
The Basic Components of Emotion
expressive behaviors- what are you going to say and do?
physiological arousal- what is your heart doing, your breathing, adrenaline level?
conscious experience- what are you thinking/feeling
- proposes that to experience emotion is to be aware of one's physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event
-you perceive the stimulus of the sight of an oncoming car, get arousal of a pounding heart, and then experience the emotion of fear
-proposed that the experience of an emotion occurs simultaneously with the body's arousal
-you perceive the stimulus of the sight of an oncoming car and then you are aroused with a pounding heart and experience the emotion of fear at the same time
[Schachter and Singer]
-proposed our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors- physical arousal and cognitive label
-you perceive the sight of an oncoming car then you are aroused with a pounding heart and cognitively label yourself as afraid and then experience the emotion of fear
Autonomic Nervous System
-controls physiological arousal
-an arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event
injection epinephrine into college students [cognition and emotion]
the results of the experiment in which college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person support the idea that our experience of emotion depend on how we interpret the body's arousal
Biological Routes to Emotion
Zajonc and LeDoux- emphasize that some emotions are immediate [spider], without conscious appraisal.
Schachter and Singer- emphasize that appraisal [interpretation, memory, expectations] also determines emotions [hatred, guilt, and love]
non-verbal- emotions are experssed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of the voice
women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men
Paul Ekman- pioneering work on emotions and facial expressions is the basis for a new television series 'lie to me'
-researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips.
-if you grimace in fear while taking a difficult exam, this facial expression is likely to cause you to experience increasingly intense feelings of fear
-isolated 10 emotions. most of them are present in infancy except for contempt, shame, and guilt
-mentally rehearsing one's resentments contributes to higher perspiration levels and higher blood pressure levels than mentally rehearsing forgiveness
-releases anger and calms blood pressure and heart rate
-people who are happy perceive the world as being saver. they are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives
Happiness and Religious Faith
having a meaningful religious faith is found to be clearlly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction
-stress is the process by which we perceive and respond to events [stressors] that threaten or challenge us
fight or flight- he perceived the stress response to be highly adaptive because it prepared the organism for fight or flight
general adaption syndrome:
alarm reaction- body's resources are mobilized to prepare organism to deal with threat
resistance- body adapts to the continued presence of the stressor
exhaustion- if the threat and the body's response continues, possible irreversible damage to the body, or even death, may occur
Stressful Life Events
catastrophic- catastrophic events like earthquakes, combat stress, and floods lead individuals to become depressed, sleepless, and anxious
life changes- leaving home, loss of loved one, job, divorce
daily hassles- rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and becoming burnt -out are the most significant sources of stress and can damage health
type A and B behavior pattern
- A is excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and anger-prone
- B is relaxed and easygoing personality
anger and cardiovascular disease
-an understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of the field
social support and coping with stress
-calms the cardiovascular system, lowers blood pressure, and lowers stress hormones. less stress equals better immunity
study on the cold virus and social support
-research participants who received nasal drops laden with a cold virus were least likely to catch a cold if they had positive social ties
study on aerobic excercise and reducing depression
-mildly depressed female students assigned to a program of aerobic exercise reported a greater decrease in depression than those assigned to a program of relaxation exercises
-increased serotonin and endorphins help
church attendance and life span
-those who attend religious services regularly were more likely than non-attenders to experience a longer life span
spirituality and faith cummunities for religiously active people
-more socially supportive relationships and healthier life-styles than those who are not religiously active
language: our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2
babbling stage to words to complete sentences
skinner, says babies learn to talk in many of the same ways that animals learn to peck keys and press bars
chomsky says language is inborn. our brains are prewired and we learn the specific grammar of whatever language we hear. its natural.
nature and nurture or it?
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