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62 terms

mgmt ch 15

STUDY
PLAY
perception
the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments
perceptual filters
the personality, psychology, or experience based differences that influence them to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli
perceptual process
attention, organization, interpretation, retention
attention
the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli
organization
the process of incorporating new information (from the stimuli that you notice) into your existing knowledge
interpretation
the process of attaching meaning to new knowledge
retention
the process of remembering interpreted information
selective perception
the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, expectations, while ignoring or screening out inconsistent information
closure
the tendency to fill in the gaps where information is missing, that is, to assume that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know
attribution theory
says that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior. We use 2 general reasons to explain people's behavior - internal and external
internal attribution
behavior is thought to be voluntary or under the control of the individual
external attribution
behavior is thought to be involuntary and outside of the control of the individual
defensive bias
the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble. WHen we identify with the person in a situation, we tend to use external attributes
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes. Assume that the accident is a function of the person and not of the situation
self serving bias
the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing success to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes)
encoding
putting a message into written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver
decoding
the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of the message into an understood message
feedback to sender
a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message
noise
anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message.
jargon
vocabulary particular to a profession or group that interferes with communication in the workplace
conduit metaphor
the mistaken assumption that senders can pipe their intended messages directly into the heads of receivers with perfect clarity and without noise or perceptual filters interfering with the receivers' understanding of the message
formal communication
the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information. organizational objectives, rules, etc are all transmitted this way.
3 formation communication channels
downward, upward, horizontal
downward communication
flows from higher to lower level in an organization
upward communication
flows from lower levels to higher levels in an organization
horizontal communication
flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level
informal communication channel (grapevine)
the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels
gossip chain
one highly connected individual shares information with many other managers and workers
cluster chain
numerous people simply tell a few of their friends
coaching
communicating with someone about non job related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the persons performance
counseling
communicating with someone about non job related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the persons performance
nonverbal communication
any communication that doesn't involve words
kinesics
movements of the body and face
paralanguage
includes the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice
communication medium
the method used to deliver a message. 2 kinds, oral and written
hearing
the act or process of perceiving sounds
listening
making a conscious effort to hear
active listening
assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that show you've accurately heard what he or she said
steps to active listening
clarify responses, paraphrase, summarize
empathetic listening
understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker
destructive feedback
disapproving without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient
constructive feedback
intended to be helpful, corrective, and encouraging
immediate feedback
more effective than delayed feedback because manager and worker can recall the mistake or incident more accurately and discuss it in detail
specific feedback
focuses on particular acts or incidents that are clearly under the control of the employee
problem oriented feedback
focuses on the problems or incidents associated with the poor performance rather than on the worker or the workers personality
cross cultural communication
involves transmitting information from a person in one country or culture to a person from another country or culture
affective cultures
display their emotion and feeling openly
neutral cultures
do not display their emotion and feeling openly
address terms
the cultural norms that establish whether you address businesspeople by their first names, family names, or titles
monochronic cultures
people tend to do one thing at a time and view time as linear
polychronic cultures
people tend to do multiple things at a time and view time as circular
appointment time
how punctual you must be when showing up for scheduled appointments or meetings
schedule time
time by which scheduled projects or jobs should actually be completed
discussion time
concerns how much time should be spent in discussion with others
acquaintance time
how much time you must spend getting to know someone before the person is prepared to do business with you
online discussion forums
the in house equivalent of internet newsgroups. By using web or software based discussion tools that are available across the company, employees can easily ask questions and share knowledge with each other
televised speeches and meetings
speeches and meetings originally made to a smaller audience that are either simultaneously broadcast to other locations in the company or videotaped for subsequent distribution and viewing
corporate talk shows
televised company meetings that allow remote audiences (employees) to pose questions to the show's host and guests
organizational silence
when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues
company hotlines
phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management
survey feedback
information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then compiled, disseminated, and used to develop actions plans for improvement
blog
a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, new summaries, and reader comments