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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
American History Alan Brinkley | Chapter 14 "The Civil War" Key Terms/People/Places/Events
Terms in this set (20)
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Creek near Sharpsburg, where on 9/17 the Union McClellan's 87,000 and Confederacy Lee's 50,000 armies clashed, 6,000 died with 17,000 injured. An extreme loss for both sides, technically a win for the Union; led to Lincoln's preliminary issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation; McClellan's actions caused Lincoln to replace him, beginning a series of several replacements of command.
Appomattox Court House
Virginia town where Lee surrendered to Grant after being blocked by Union forces. Marked the beginning of the end of the Civil war, as other generals surrendered not long after, both an ideological loss and a literal defeat for the South.
First battle of the Civil war neat Manassas, VA, where the Union was driven off after being exhausted and overcome by the Confederacy; the North believed it would be a quick and easy victory, and the war would then be over. Was a severe blow to the Union's morale, showed the North that the South was serious about the war, and showed both sides that the war wouldn't end swiftly.
Important nurse during the Civil war and founder of the American Red Cross. Recognized the development of women's roles and the opening of new opportunities as social and cultural customs were lifted and/or new ones assumed, during the period of shifting American identity.
Abraham Lincoln's written declaration (and executive order)"freeing" all slaves in Confederate territory except those under Union control. Established the war as one against slavery, inspired antislavery sentiments in the North, helping African Americans to free themselves, weakened the South's grip on slaves in this way.
Union fort that Confederate leaders decided to fire upon for two days until Union general Anderson surrendered, and immediately after, the North began preparations for war. Marked the beginning of the Civil war, and soon after the secession of other Southerns states to the Confederacy occurred; "the last push" towards war.
George B. McClellan
Replaced McDowell ; organized the army of Potomac ; fired by Lincoln, faced Lincoln in the election of 1864
Battle in Pennsylvania between Meade and Lee, lasting for 2 days; after Pickett's Charge, Lee had lost 1/3 of his army; eventually he had to retreat from __________. A turning point in the war as the Confederates were weakened and much fewer than before.
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to claim 160 acres of public land and purchase it for a small fee after living on it for 5 years. Encouraged permanent settlement as well as Western Expansion; with other legislation served to open up and develop the West more.
Jefferson Finis Davis was an American politician who was a U.S. Representative and Senator from Mississippi, the 23rd U.S. Secretary of War, and the President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
March to the Sea
Sixty-mile wide path of destruction from ruins of Atlanta, GA, to Savannah, GA, by Will. Teh. Sherman, in which units disabled railroad communications, and towns and plantations were burned. Damaged Southern morale and communications while the war was coming to an end, leading to the surrender of the Confederacy by Lee.
Morrill Land Grant Act
passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges. Yup Penn State is one of them.
Robert E. Lee
Leader of the Confederate army who opposed secession and was neutral about slavery, known for his aggressive tactics in battles. Led the Confederacy through the Civil war and an important symbol for the Confederacy.
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
Thomas ("Stonewall") Jackson
he was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of chancellorsville his own men accidently mortally wounded him.
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general known for his unrelenting tactics, as the North had great supplies of resources and soldiers, became 18th President of the United States during the reconstruction. Successfully commanded (second to Lincoln) the Union army during the Civil war and stabilized the nation under his presidency.
U.S. Sanitary Commission
Government supported Nursing Corps led by Dorothea Dix, broke female gender roles and assisted the Union armies in the field. Trained nurses, collected medical supplies, and equipped hospitals.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union soldier, businessman, educator, author; served under Ulysses S. Grant, and became Commanding general of the Army; "founded" idea of "scorched earth" policies as a declaration of total war against the Confederacy. Instrumental in the taking of Atlanta, demoralized Confederacy in his "scorched earth" practices during his infamous March to the Sea; pioneered many war tactics still used today.
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