a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans; result of the Neolithic Revolution
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
A member of a group that has no permanent home, wandering from place to place in search of food and water
(750,000 BCE - 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source.
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
A society with cities, a political system, written language, religious beliefs, art and artisans, job specialization, and social classes
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state (as seen in Mesopotamia and ancient Greece)
a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
Epic of Gilgamesh
An epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing.
A rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound / monumental architecture erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Belief in many gods
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians (a Mesopotamian city-state) using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets; often used to record tax-collection
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Pyramids of Giza
The three pyramids near Giza that were built by the Egyptian Pharaohs Khufu, Cheops, and Cheops' son. Examples of monumental architecture and built as tombs to the Egyptian rulers who were seen as living gods
The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea; ancient Egyptian life revolved around the annual flooding of this river
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political leader
A government ruled by a king or queen
A professional writer
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
the two rivers that surround Mesopotamia. These rivers would flood unpredictably and provide silt that made the soil fertile.
a person who performs religious ceremonies
Hammurabi's Law Code
A proclamation issued by Babylonian king Hammurabi to establish laws regulating many aspects of life; some of the first laws ever codified
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
These mountains separate India from China and are the tallest in the world.
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; Vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
ancient oral tradition of knowledge that arrived in India by the Aryans and ultimately developed into Hinduism
the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
The earliest known Chinese writing is found on these from ritual activity of the Shang period; used for telling the future
belief in only one god
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command.
A Hebrew word meaning "law," referring to the first five books of the Old Testament.
Led the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt; received the 10 commandments
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
arrange and set down in writing
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
According to Judaism, a solemn agreement between God and the Hebrews making them the "chosen people" in exchange for their dedication to monotheism
A set of symbols that represent the sounds of a language
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
The movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language, iron metallurgy, and culture, from around 500 BCE. to around 1000 CE