Cell Organelles

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Where is the Plasma Membrane found?
surface of animal and plant cells
Function of Plasma Membrane
- regulates movement of substances in and out of the cells

- receptor molecules
What is the cell wall mainly made of?
cellulose
Function of Cell Wall
Strengthens and protects the cell
What does the Nucleus contain?
- contains chromatin

- contains nucleolus
Nucleus Function
- controls cells activities
---controls transcription of DNA

- contains instructions to make proteins

- makes ribosomes
What surrounds the nucleus?
nuclear envelope
Description of Lysosomes
- round

- surrounded by membrane

- no clear internal structure
Function of Lysosomes
- contains digestive enzymes

- digest invading cells


- break down worn out cell components
Where can ribosomes be found?
- free floating in cytoplasm

-attached to rough ER
What are Ribosomes made of?
RNA to protein

- small subunit and larger subunit
Do ribosomes have a membrane?
no
Function of Ribosomes
Site where proteins are made
What is the surface of the Rough ER covered in?
ribosomes
What is the Rough ER?
- a system of membranes enclosing a fluid - filled space
Function of Rough ER
- folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes
What does the Smooth ER look like>
- similar to RER but with no ribosomes
Function of Smooth ER?
synthesises and processes lipids
What do Vesicles look like?
- fluid filled sac in cytoplasms

- surrounded by membrane
Function of Vesicles
- transports substances in and out of the cell (via plasma membrane) between organelles
Where are Vesicles formed?
- Golgi Apparatus

- Endoplasmic reticulum

- others are formed at cell surface
What is the golgi apparatus?
- fluid filled membrane bounded flattened sacs
Function of Golgi Apparatus
- processes and packages new lipids and proteins

- makes lysosomes
Membrane of Mitochondria
- double membrane

- inner membrane folded = cristae
Matrix of Mitochondria
membranes involved in respiration
Cristae
Inner membrane folded in mitochondria
Function of Mitochondria
- site of aerobic respiration

- where ATP is produced
Membrane of Chloroplast
double
Function of Chloroplasts
- site where photosynthesis takes place
Thylakoid Membranes
- found in chloroplasts

- stacked up in some parts of the chloroplasts to form grana
Grana
- found in chloroplasts

- stacked up Thylakoid Membranes

- linked by lamellae
How are Granum linked?
linked by lamellae
Function of Granum
photosynthesis can happen
Lamellae
- found in chromosomes

- thin, flat pieces of thylakoid membrane
Function of Lamellae
link granum together
Stroma
- thick fluid found in chloroplasts
Where can photosynthesis occur in the chloroplasts?
- stroma

- grana
Centrioles
- small, hollow cylinders
What are Centrioles made up of?
microtubules
Function of Centrioles
involved with separation of chromosomes during cell division
Where is Cilia found?
- found on surface membrane of some animal cells
What is cilia made up of?
- have outer membrane and a ring of nine pairs of protein microtubules

- 2 microtubules in middle
Function of Cilia
cilia movement is used by the cell to move substances along cell surface
Function of Flagella
- microtubules contract to make flagella move

- used like motors to propel cells forward
What is Flagella made of?
2 microtubules inside in the centre and 9 pairs around edge