NASM Chapter 13
Terms in this set (51)
Final component of an OPT fitness program, typically what will take up the bulk of a workout session
Where fitness professionals have the greatest degree of control, using targeted exercises appropriate for each body part, systemcatically progressed across a wide range of acute variables (sets, reps, tempo, intensity, and rest interval)
Primary Goal of Resistance Training
Improve strength-related adaptations that support more optimal performance of functional movement patterns
General Adaptation Syndrome
The way that the body adapts to stresses that are placed on it
When a stressor is first experienced, the body first has an alarm reaction to it that activates various physiological and psychological processes to protect the body
As a stressor is regularly encountered, the body adapts to better deal with it
The intial reaction to a stressor
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
Alarm reaction to exercise that one is not yet accustomed to
Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity
Resistance Development Stage
The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
When training becomes too intense for the body to handle and leads to the breakdown of physiological systems
Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages
Principle of Specificity
Specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID) principle
States that not only does the body adapt to the stresses placed upon it, but that it will specifically adapt to the specific types of stresses it experiences
e.g. to increase muscular endurance, one needs to train with higher repetition ranges and lower weights, so the muscles get used to working for longer periods of time
Weight and movements placed on the body
Encompasses the speed of muscle contractions and exercise selection
Energy demand of an exercise or activity
Three Types of Specificity
Mechanical, neuromuscular, metabolic
All three need to be considered for each client to ensure their program meets the specific demands of their daily life and fitness goals
Resistance Training Adaptations
The way resistance training can be focused to produce specific neuromuscular adaptations
Each adaptation builds upon the other and represents the focus for each phase of the OPT model: stabilization, muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and power
Body's ability to remain stable and balanced over the center of gravity in a changing environment
Increase ability to produce forces for longer periods of time by lifting with higher repetition ranges and lower weights
The physical growth of skeletal muscle tissue and is achieved by using intermediate repetition ranges with progressive overload
Refers to overall force the muscles can produce and is optimally enhanced by lifting heavier loads that increase neural demand and recruit more muscle fibers to work
Equals force times velocity, which for exercise relates to the ability to generate the greatest possible muscular force as fast as possible
basic system (one set 8-12 reps for each muscle group) that is widely recommended and used for beginners and those interested in an effective, time efficient workout
Where one exercise is selected for each major segment of the body, and only one set of each is performed
Resistance segment of a workout that can be "loaded" in two different ways
consists of 3 to 6 sets of an exercise, usually the same weight load throughout
Vertically Loaded Workout
One set of each exercise is performed at a time, then the whole sequence is repeated for the desired number sets
Programs start with upper body and work their way down (e.g. total-body, chest, back, shoulders, biceps, triceps, legs)
Alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting from the upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity
Horizontally Loaded Workout
Where all sets of each exercise are performed before moving on to the next one
Performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving on to the next exercises or body part
Uses either a heavy-to-light or a light-to-heavy intensity/repetition scheme
Performing a set to the point of failure, removing some weight, and resuming it right away until failure again
Maximizes hypertrophy and best suited for experienced clients
Where two exercises are performed back-to-back with no rest between
Used specifically in Phases 2 and 5 of the OPT model to maximize adaptation
Takes a standard resistance program and removes the rest periods between exercise, stopping for rest only one the entire circuit has been completed
Highly beneficial for weight loss clients due to the elevated cardiorespiratory demand that burns more calories than a workout with higher amounts of rest
Alternate between upper and lower body exercises to improve body composition
Where certain body segments are focused on during each workout
i.e. back, biceps, and leg exercises one day, and chest triceps, and shoulders on the next
Seven Areas of Focus
Total-Body, Chest, Back, Shoulders, Biceps, Triceps, and Legs
Designed to improve neuromuscular efficiency and joint stability
Uses lighter weights and slow tempo and performed in most proprioceptively enriched environment
Beginner: Ball Squat, Curl to Press,
Advanced: Multiplanar Step-Up, balance, curl to overhead press
Performed on a more stable base of support so that heavier loads can be handled
Focus mainly on increasing prime mover strength
Can target muscular endurance, hypertrophy, or maximal strength (Phases 2, 3, and 4 of OPT Model)
Performed as part of the supersets used in the Power Level and are focused on the velocity at which force can be produced
e.g. Medicine ball throws, jumps, and hops are all used to accomplish this
When paired with biomechanically similar resistance-strength exercise, muscular power is improved
Many are the same is plyometric-strength exercises
What is involved in the preparatory step for a multiplanar step-up, balance, curl to overhead press exercise?
Stand in front of a box with feet shoulder-width apart
Which of the following exercises is considered a back-stabilization exercise?
Standing cable row
Resistance should be positioned to resist scapular depression and retraction during which of the following exercises?
Standing cable row
An advanced client who is interested in gaining high levels of muscle mass would benefit most from which of the following resistance-training systems?
A woman is training to improve her running capabilities for an upcoming marathon. She is progressively increasing the distance and time of her runs. Which principle best explains physiological adaptions occuring to the woman's aerobic energy system?
A client is performing a standing cable row with her shoulders elevated. What cue should be used to correct her form?
Depress the shoulder blades to activate the scapular retractors.
Peripheral heart action
A variation of circuit training that uses different exercises (upper and lower body) for each set through the circuit
A new client with limited exercise experience has recently begun a Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance training program. Which of the following is the most appropriate way for this client to increase muscular endurance?
Which of the following is an example of a peripheral heart action system?
Performing a circuit of exercises, alternating upper and lower body movements.
When performed at an appropriate tempo, which of the following exercises would offer the best improvement of the power of a client's pectoralis major?
Medicine ball rotation chest pass
A client performs a ball squat, curl to overhead press followed by a push-up, a standing cable row, a single-leg scaption, and a single-leg squat in a circuit fashion. This is an example of which of the following resistance training systems?
A ball squat, curl to press is an example of an exercise from which level in the OPT model?
What is occuring when a prolonged intolerable stressor produces fatigue and leads to a breakdown in the system or injury?
During a workout, a personal trainer wants to increase the proprioceptive demand of a standard push-up exercise for his client. Which of the following would be a proper progression?
Hands on the floor, feet on a stability ball
Which of the following exercises is the best example of a Stabilization Level exercise?
Multiplanar step-up balance, curl, to overhead press
What is the next immediate progression for the ball two-arm dumbbell chest press?
Alternating-arm ball dumbbell chest press