52 terms

Modified Animals Unit - C1S1, C3S1, C4S3, C4S4, and C5

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Terms in this set (...)

species
a group of organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring which can also mate and reproduce
organ
tissues combine to form an organ, which peforms more complex job(s) than each tissue itself
heterotroph
an organism that cannot make food for itself, and must obtain food by eating other organisms
autotroph
an organism that makes its own food
sexual reproduction
the process by which a new organism forms from the joining of two sex cells
asexual reproduction
the process by which a single organism produces a new organism identical to itself
adaptation
a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment or reproduce
herbivore
an animal that eats only plants
carnivore
an animal that eats only other animals
predator
a carnivore that hunts and kills other animals and has adaptations that help it capture the animals it preys upon
prey
an animal that a predator feeds upon
omnivore
an animal that eats both plants and animals
phylum
one of about 35 major groups into which biologists classify members of the animal kingdom
invertebrate
an animal that does not have a backbone
vertebrate
an animal that has a backbone
chordate
the phylum whose members have a notochord, a nerve cord, and slits in their throat area at some point in their lives
vertebra
the bones that make up the backbone of an animal
notochord
a felxible rod that supports a chordate's back
ectotherm
an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat
cartilage
a flexible, strong tissue that is softer than bone
endotherm
an animal whose body controls and regulates its temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces
mammal
an endothermic vertebrate with a four-chambered heart, skin covered with fur or hair, and which has young fed with milk from the mother's body
incisors
flat-edged teeth used to bite off and cut parts of food
canines
sharp pointed teeth that stab food and tear into it
premolars
teeth that, along with molars, grind and shred food into tiny bits
molars
teeth that, along with premolars, grind and shred food into tiny bits
diaphragm
a large muscle in a mammal's chest that functions in breathing
mammary gland
the organs that produce the milk with which mammals feed their young
monotreme
a mammal that lays eggs
marsupial
a mammal whose young are born alive at an early stage of development, and which usually continue to develop in a pounch on their mother's body
gestation period
the length of time between fertilization and birth of a mammal
placental mammal
a mammal that develops inside its mothers body until its body systems can function independently
placenta
an organ in pregnant female placental mammals that passes materials between the mother and the developing embryo
behavior
all the actions an animal performs
stimulus
a signal that causes an organism to react in some way
response
an organism's reaction to a stimulus
instinct
an inborn behavior pattern that an animal performs correctly for the first time
learning
the process that leads to changes in behavior based on practice or experience
conditioning
the process of learning to connect a stimulus with a good or bad event
trial-and-error learning
the learning that occurs when an animal learns to perform a behavior more and more skillfully
insight learning
the process of learning how to solve a problem or do something new by applying what is already known
artificial intelligence
the capacity of a computer to perform complex tasks such as learning from experience and solving problems
imprinting
a process in which newly hatched birds or newborn mammals learn to follow the first object they see
aggression
a threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another
territory
an area that is occupied and defended by an animal or group of animals
courtship behavior
the behavior that animals of the same species engage in to prepare for mating
society
a group of closely related animals of the same species that work together for the benefit of the whole group
circadian rhythm
behavior cycles that occur over a period of approximately one day
hibernation
a state of greatly reduced body activity that occurs during the winter
migration
the regular, periodic journey of an animal from one place to another and back again for the purpose of feeding or reproduction
pheromone
a chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of another animal of the same species
bioluminescence
the production of light by a living organism by means of chemical reactions within the organism's cells