69 terms

government test 1/4/19


Terms in this set (...)

what is a republic
a type of government where citizens choose the leaders of their country and the people (or at least part of its people) have an impact of its government; a state without a monarch
what is suffrage
the right to vote
what was voting like in the early days
it was limited to white men that owned property but was eventually changed to just white men
who could not vote in the early days
women, slaves, and indians
what is a mixed government
a form of government that integrates facets of government by democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy
what were some of the issues involved with mixed government
1. state is governed by the majority of the people
2. the state is governed by a few
3. the state is governed by a single person
what is mixed government commonly treated as
an antecedent of separation of powers
what is the central characteristic of a republic
the US has rule by one (the president). the few (the Senate), and the many (the House of Representatives)
what is the virginia statute of religious freedom
a document drafted in 1777 by Thomas Jefferson that supported the separation of church and state and freedom on conscience
when was the virginia statute of religious freedom enacted
what was the articles of confederation
the first constitution of the USA that legally established the union of the states
what part did the 2nd continental congress have in the articles of confederation
they sent the draft of the articles to the states for ratification in 1777
when was the ratification process completed for the articles of confederation
march 1781
what did the ratification of the articles of confederation legally do
joined the sovereign and independent states into the USA
what does the word "confederation" mean
states or persons united by a league
what were some problems with the articles of confederation
since it was written in the middle of the revolution, the leaders were fighting against a strong central government, causing them to make theirs weak. people got criticized for wanting a strong central government
what did federalists want for the articles of confederation
they thought government lacked the taxing of authority, so it had to request funds from the states. they also wanted a government that could impose uniform tariffs
what were the northwestern ordinances
established as a part of the articles of confederation that was written by Thomas Jefferson
what did the northwestern ordinances establish
the precedent that the US could expand out west by admission of new states instead of extending upon existing states
what did the northwestern ordinances set the stage for
for balancing acts of slave states and free states, and the politics of the war. slavery was also banned in the northwest territory setting the ohio river as the boundary between free and slave territory
what was shays rebellion
took place in 1786-87 in massachusetts. along with the weakness of the government led many to want a strong central government
what did shays rebellion directly lead to
the constitutional convention
who was shays rebellion named after
daniel shay, a revolutionary war veteran
who were most of the followers of shays rebellion
poor farmers who were angered by debts and taxes
what kind of fears did the revolution produce
that the democratic impulse had gotten out of hand
what happened in the summer of 1787 in philadelphia
the continental congress called for a convention to create a new government
what was the biggest issue during the constitutional convention
how to give the government power so it would be effective, but limited so it would not be oppressive
who was elected the presiding officer during the convention
george washington
who were all the delegates of the constitutional convention
all members of the aristocracy of the US who had participated in government in either the states or the articles congress
what was checks and balances
the idea that each branch of government would have specific powers and each of the powers would also depend on at least one of the other brances
how many branches of government are there
Three (Legislative, Executive, Judicial)
where was the idea of checks and balances from
came from Madison who wanted the ensure that none of the branches could collect all the power because at least one if not both of the other branches would always oppose it
what is popular sovereignty (sovereignty of the people)
the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of the people (john locke's social contract theory)
what did Benjamin Franklin think about popular sovereignty
he expressed the concept when he wrote "in free government the rulers are the servants and the people their superiors and sovereigns"
what was the main issue debated during the second continental congress
what did the big states want for representation
they wanted a system where the population of the state would decide how many votes that state had
what did the small states want for representation
everyone to have an equal vote so they wouldn't get crushed
what did the bigger southern states like georgia and the carolinas want for representation
equal vote because even though they were big states, the other big states was new york had more eligible voters because a lot of the southern states population are negro slaves
who proposed the great compromise
roger sherman
what did the great compromise call for
a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower and upper house
what did the great compromise do for larger states
representation in the house of representatives (lower house) would be based on population
what did the great compromise do for smaller states
representation in the Senate (upper house) would be given two seats for each states
what was the good thing for slaveholders because slaves could not vote
the slaveholders had more representation in the house and electoral college
what did delegates opposed to slavery want to happen with their representation
they believed only free inhabitants should vote
what did delegates supportive of slavery want to happen with their representation
they wanted to count slaves in their actual number
5 slaves equals how many white men
how many of the states had to approve the change in he constitution
what knowledge did the founders have about the constitution
what they wrote would have to change as the country changed
what is a federalist
those who supported the constitution and a strong federal government (opposed bill of rights)
what is an anti federalist
those who opposed the constitution because it only talked about the power of the government and not the rights of the people (wanted a bill of rights)
what was the compromise for how slaves were represented
three-fifths compromise
what happened after the constitution was finished
it went back to the state to be ratified
why were the states used to having laid out rights
before the revolution, they had the english bill of rights
what was the only way new york would ratify the constitution
if it had a bill of rights and a compromise was made that the first ten amendments of the constitution would be considered the bill
what were the federalist papers
a series of articles/letters to help support and ratify the constitution
who were the writers of the federalist papers
john jay, alexander hamilton, and james madison
more information on the federalist papers
- explained how the constitution would work through newspaper articles
- still the best explanation of the constitution
when was the constitution ratified
july 1788
what are ways the government distributes power
unitary systems and confederal systems (confederations)
what is a unitary government
when central governments rule directly on the citizen and local government exercise powers granted to them by the central government
what is a confederation
a system of government in which sovereign states delegate power to a central government for specific purposes
who does the government of a confederation act on
the member states, not the citizens of those states. also can result in inefficiency and conflict (articles of confederation)
what is the confederation congress
(1776-1787) the men who governed the US during this time who accomplished five important things
what five things did the confederation congress accomplish
- governed the nation during war
- negotiated the Treaty of Paris
- ratified the Articles of Confederation
- passed the Land Ordinance of 1785
- passed the Northwest ordinance of 1787
what is the land ordinance
called for surveyors to stake out six-mile square plots that are now called the townships in the northwest territory
provisions of the northwest ordinance (conditions for settlement)
- slavery outlaws in the northwest territory
- freedom of religion was guaranteed
- trial by jury was guatanteed
provisions of the northwest ordinance (conditions for statehood)
- when a territory had at least 60,000 people, they could apply to become a new state
what powers were given to the federal government in the articles of confederation
- wage war
- make peace
- sign treaties
- issue money
what was the federal government restricted from doing in the articles
im done