45 terms

Chemistry Unit 2 Chemical Bonding

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Anion
An atom that has gained an electron and has a negative charge
Atom
Smallest part of an element; made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Atomic Number
Number of protons or electrons in an atom
Cation
An atom that has lost an electron and has a positive charge
Chemical Formula
Represents a chemical compound (with symbols and subscripts)
Chemical Symbols
Letter or letters that are used to represent the elements
Compound
Pure substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined
Conservation of Mass
Law that states the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products
Covalent Bond
Bond between two elements that share electrons
Electron
Subatomic particle with a negative charge; found in energy levels around the nucleus
Energy Level
Areas around the nucleus that contains electrons; first can hold 2, second can hold 8, and the third can hold up to 18
Family
Groups or columns of elements in the periodic table with similar properties and the same number of valence electrons
Ion
An atom that has lost or gained an electron
Ionic Bond
Bond between two ions that results from a transfer of electrons
Metal
Elements found on the left-hand side of the periodic table, such as Na, Mg, and Au
Metalloids
Elements located along the zig-zag that have properties of metals and nonmetals
Molecule
A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Neutron
Subatomic particle with no charge; found in the nucleus
Nonmetals
Elements found on the right-hand side of the periodic table, such as H, O, and Cl
Oxidation Number
The number of electrons an atom may gain or lose; also known as it's "charge"
Periodic Table
Chart that shows the elements arranged in families and periods based on their properties and atomic structure
Subscript
Number that shows the number of atoms of each element in a compound, such as the 2 in H2O
Valence
Electrons in the outermost energy level
Single
Type of covalent bond in which one pair of electrons are shared
Double
Type of covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared
Triple
Type of covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared
Diatomic
Type of molecule composed when two atoms of the same element combine
1+
Oxidation number for Lithium and other Alkali Metals
2+
Oxidation number for Beryllium and other Alkaline Earth Metals
3+
Oxidation number for members of the Boron family
1-
Oxidation number for members of the Halide family
2-
Oxidation number for members of the Oxygen family
3-
Oxidation number for members of the Nitrogen family
1
# of valence electrons for the Alkali Metals
2
# of valence electrons for the Alkaline Earth Metals
3
# of valence electrons for the Boron family
4
# of valence electrons for the Carbon family
5
# of valence electrons for the Nitrogen family
6
# of valence electrons for the Oxygen family
7
# of valence electrons for the Halogens (Halide) family
8
# of valence electrons needed for an octet
Coefficient
A number in front of a chemical formula that indicates how many molecules are involved in a reaction, such as the 2 in "2NaCl"
Metal + Metal
Metallic bonds form between these types of elements
Metal + Nonmetal
Ionic bonds form between these types of elements
Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Covalent bonds form between these types of elements
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