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neurotransmitters involved with HEROIN:
-without the drug, inhibitory neurotransmitters inhibit the release of dopamine
-natural opiates turn off inhibitory neurotransmitters
action of HEROIN:
-it mimics natural opiates and binds to opiate receptors, turning off dopamine inhibition
-dopamine floods the synaptic cleft
-leaves user feeling sedated
neurotransmitters involved with ECSTASY:
-serotonin transporters remove serotonin molecules once they've done their job
-excess serotonin causes mild release of dopamine along the reward pathway
action of ECSTASY:
-it mimics serotonin and is taken up by the transporters
-ecstasy alters the transporters and causes it to work in reverse (transports serotonin out of the cell)
-excess serotonin over stimulates the cell
neurotransmitters involved with MARIJUANA:
-without the drug, neurotransmitters inhibit the release of dopamine
-the body's native cannabinoid (anandamide) turns off the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, causing dopamine to be released
action of MARIJUANA:
-THC mimics anandamide and binds to cannabinoid receptors, causing dopamine to be released
dopamine:
-neurotransmitter that is involved in the reward pathways
-many addictive drugs increase dopamine neural activity
serotonin:
neurotransmitters that is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness
GABA:
-inhibitory neurotransmitter
-contributes to motor control, vision, and other cortical functions
-regulates anxiety
anandamide:
-the body's native cannabinoid
-removes short term memories, slows movement
neurotransmitters involved with METHAMPHETAMINE:
-before the drug, dopamine transporters remove dopamine from the synaptic cleft
action of METHAMPHETAMINE:
-it mimics dopamine so it is taken into cell by the transporters
-it enters the dopamine vesicles, forcing dopamine out
-excess dopamine causes transporters to pump it out, overstimulating the cell
-highly addictive because it works directly on the reward pathway
neurotransmitters involved with ALCOHOL:
-inhibitory neurotransmitter: GABA
-without alcohol, GABA binds to receptors, making the cell less likely to fire
action of ALCOHOL:
1. it interacts with GABA receptors, making it more inhibitory
2. also binds to glutamate receptors, preventing glutamate from exciting cell
-effects memory formation, decision making, and impulse control
neurotransmitters involved with COCAINE:
-without the drug, dopamine transporters remove dopamine molecules from the synaptic cleft
action of COCAINE:
-it blocks dopamine transporters, leaving dopamine trapped in cleft
-dopamine overstimulates cell by continually trying to attach to transporters
-cocaine concentrates in reward pathways and in parts of brain controlling voluntary movement, making users extremely fidgety
neurotransmitters involved with LSD:
-LSD chemically resembles serotonin and elicits its effects by binding to the receptors
-there are several types of receptors, each responsible for different functions
action of LSD:
-LSD interacts with particular receptors but not always in the same way
-LSD may inhibit or excite the receptors (one reason why LSD has complex sensory effects)
-it excites the region of the brain called the locus coeruleus (LC)
locus coeruleus (LC):
part of the brain that is responsible for feelings of wakefulness and evoking a startle response to unexpected stimulus
glutamate:
acts as the brain's excitatory neurotransmitter