Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision (Praxis 5411)


Terms in this set (...)

Student Data
Three types of student data: academic, nonacademic, and
perceptual data
Non-Academic Student Data
Includes attendance and behavior referrals
Perceptual Data
Another important source of student data is from their own voices and perceptions.
Shared Leadership
Power shared is power gained. Decisions should be made by those most affected by outcome.
Motivating a group
Enable members to find meaning in accomplishing the task of the group and increase congruence between goals of the individual and group
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA, 1974)
Allows students access to their school records, opportunity to seek or amend their own records
Learning Paradigm (Barr and Tagg)
The ultimate goal is a transition to learning-centered communities, which can be achieved with learning-centered technology
Student Development Theory (Chickering)
Chickering's Seven Vectors: theorize the "tasks" that students must go through while developing their identity--- Developing competence, emotions, interdependence, interpersonal relationships, identity, purpose, integrity
Adjunct Faculty
Due to the rise in for-profit educational institutions (Hentschke, Tierney, & Lechuga)
Morrill Act (1862)
Land Grant College Act signed by Lincoln, granted each state 30k acres of public land. Focused on practical professions such as agriculture and mechanical engineering, led to America's creation of vocational studies
John Dewey
(1859-1952) Regarded education in a democracy as a tool to integrate culture and vocation usefully. Radical reform of both pedagogical methods and curricula needed. Complete Act of Thought Method for Problem Soving. Students solve questions based on scientific interest, incorporates cooperative learning. Pragmatism, Progressivism, a Progressive Functionalist and Academic Scientism advocate
Maria Montessori
(1870-1952) Study of mentally deficient children led to focus on biological development. Children can sustain focus when interested, rewards and punishments are not required. Curriculum includes practical life, sensory stimulation, and formal skills. Rejects imagination stimulation by fairytales and prefers use of science
Constructivist Theories of Learning
Suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences (learning by doing)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Need (1948)
1. Physiological needs
2. Safety and securtiy
3. Belonging (love and social)
4. Esteem (deserved respect)
5. Self-Actualization (self fulfillment)
Decision Making Process
R-ecognize and define problem
A-nalyze the difficulties in the existing situation
E-stablish criteria
D-evelop a plan
I-nitiate the plan
10th Amendment
State control of schools
Supremacy Clause (of the U.S. Constitution)
Allows federal government to direct education
14th Amendment (to the U.S. Constitution)
Equal protection under laws. The 14th Amendment prohibits any state from denying "to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Highest special education law (1975): disabled children have the right to a free public education
Brown Act (California)
Guarantees the public's right to attend and participate in meetings of local legislative bodies (school board meetings)
RODDA Act (1975)
The first collective bargaining law for public school employees: includes wages, hours of employment, health and welfare benefits, leaves, transfers, reassignments, safety conditions, class size, evaluation procedures, organizational security, grievance procedures, certain aspects of layoffs, and procedures for discipline
Pierce v. Society of Sisters
Districts cannot mandate that students attend only public schools
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
Amish not compelled to attend public school
Plyler v. Doe (1982)
States can't deny education for illegal immigrants
Lee v. Weisman (1992)
Prayer at graduation: schools may not sponsor clerics to conduct even non-denominational prayer
Edwards v. Aguillard (1987)
U.S. Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of teaching creationism (Louisiana)
Kitzmiller v. Dover (2005)
Teachers can't be forced to teach intelligent design
Roberts v. Madigan (1990)
Teachers cannot read bibles in class
Hartzell v. Connell (1984)
Schools are allowed to charge fees for sports
Berg v. Glen Cove (1994)
Decided that students cannot be excluded from attending school for following religious beliefs (lack of immunization)
Sherman v. Wheeling (1992)
Patriotic exercises can't be forced upon students
Jeglin v. San Jacinto (1993)
Schools can have a dress code if negative associations in the community can be proven (ex; gangs)
Beeson v. Kiowa (1977)
Schools can't exclude married students and student parents
Goss v. Lopez (1975)
A public school must conduct a hearing before subjecting a student to suspension
Allen v. Casper (1993)
Private schools can expel without due process
Pickering v. Board of Education (1968)
Teacher has a right to speak on issues of public importance without being dismissed from his or her position
Stull Act (1971)
Requires evaluation of teachers
Formative Assessment
(A form of evaluation that occurs DURING instruction) A type of evaluation where data is collected through ongoing daily lessons of student
Summative Assessment
(A form of evaluation that occurs AFTER instruction) The goal is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark
Scheff v. O'Neill (1989)
The resources the state spent on schools in areas with majority black/latino populations were lower than those spent on schools in areas mainly inhabited by white people
Fair and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Fair and Appropriate Public Education: To provide FAPE to a child with a disability, schools must provide students with an education, including specialized instruction and related services, that prepares the child for further education, employment, and independent living
Section 504 of ADA (1990)
No discrimination against people with disabilities
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris
School voucher programs, which allow parents to send their children to private school, are OK
Wood v. Strickland (1975)
Expelled students have a right to due process
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional (overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896)
Progressive functionalism
Student-centered curriculum to prepare for adult life (also encouraged fine arts)
Tinker v. Des Monines (1969)
Students have first amendment rights to free speech. Wore black armbands during Vietnam War to school and were suspended. Court found that administrators would have to demonstrate constitutionally valid reasons for any specific regulation of speech in the classroom
Sputnik affect on U.S. education
Launched criticism about U.S. education during the Cold War
Schlossberg's Transition Theory
Based on the individual and what they consider to be a transition in their life
Perry's Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development (1968)
Intellectual and identity development
Expenditures to revenue ratio
Ratio of how much the district spent for every dollar received
West Virginia v. Barnette (1943)
Students can't be forced to say pledge
Honig v. Doe (1988)
Can't expel a disabled student based on his or her disability
Dianna v. State Board of Education (1970)
Evaluation must be in the student's native language
Self Advocacy Theory
A person's judgement about his or her ability to perform an activity
6 core domains of instructional strategy
1. Planning
2. Management of student conduct
3. Instructional organization
4. Presentation
5. Communication
6. Testing
Zero-based budgeting
A method of budgeting in which all expenses must be justified for each new period (starting at zero)
Accrual schools
Use zero-based budgeting as a form of accounting
Buckley Amendment (1984)
If students are 18 years or older, parents do NOT have the right to view student records without consent
Diagnostic Assessment
A form of evaluation which occurs BEFORE instruction
The extent that a test measures what is intended to measure (better than reliability)
Consistency of a test or series of questions
Professional Learning Communities
A method to foster collaborative learning among colleagues (teachers working together)
Title VII (1964)
A federal law that prohibits employers from discriminating against employees on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin, and religion
Title III (2001)
Part of the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, specifically targeted to benefit ESL students: Language instruction of immigrant studies required for English language learners
Title IV
Support programs that prevent violence
Title I
Provides financial assistance to schools with high numbers or high percentages of children from low-income families
Title II
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability
New Public Management
Reliant on business experts rather than educators to make decisions
Students can skip academic material or grades
Formal Teaching Style
Traditional, lecture-based
Demonstrator Teaching Style
Facilitator Teaching Style
Groups and cooperative learning
Delegator Teaching Style
Student-led learning, leader tends to sit back and watch
Hierarchial Leadership Style
Leaders organize subordinates into a pyramid-like structure
Transformational Leadership Style
Leader utilizes personal creativity, motivation, constant communications, and relationships to inspire a team with a shared vision and to consider changes as needed
Facilitative Leadership Style
Works with entire management, collective ideas by being a "part of the crowd" (leadership style for building consensus in meetings)
Norm-Referenced Assessment
Report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student
IQ (Intelligence) Test
A norm-referenced test used to measure cognitive behaviors and to assess student learning abilities or intellectual capacity, based on what one has ALREADY learned (poor method of evaluation)
Criterion-Referenced Assessment
Designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards (most used in education and translates test scores)
Aptitude Test
Evaluate a student's ability to acquire skills or gain knowledge
Learning by doing
The theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns (discounts mental activities, focuses on those observable)
Piaget's Cognitive Theory
Theory about the nature and development of human intelligence; deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it (known as Developmental Stage Theory)
Theory of Motivation (Glasser)
The explanation of human behavior based on internal motivation
Psychomotor Domain of Learning
Physical or manual skills (One of the three domains of educational learning / Bloom's Taxonomy)
Affective Domain of Learning
Feelings, values, and appreciation (One of the three domains of educational learning / Bloom's Taxonomy)
Cognitive Domain of Learning
Mental skills and knowledge (One of the three domains of educational learning / Bloom's Taxonomy)
Programmed Instruction
(or programmed instruction) Research-based system which helps learners work successfully. The learning material is in a kind of textbook or teaching machine or computer
Curriculum would be hierarchal (One of the four philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism)
Curriculum stresses organization (One of the four philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism)
Also known as experientialism. Curriculum discovery-based and problem-solving at core (One of the four philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism)
Favors drama, art, and self expression (One of the four philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism)
Title VI
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance
Rodriguez v. San Antonio (1973)
School funding issue with taxes for poor low income districts
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
7 ways people understand the world: Linguistic, Logical, Spatial, Kinestetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal
The belief that schools should teach ideas that are everlasting
Children should learn the traditional basic or "essential" subjects thoroughly
Education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher
Focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
3 levels: basic, proficient, and advanced
Stages of Change
Individuals move through a series of five stages (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) in the adoption of healthy behaviors or cessation of unhealthy ones
Students pursue an area of interest in depth under the supervision of a faculty member (used especially in gifted programs)
Cluster Grouping
Educational process in which 4-6 students are assigned to an otherwise heterogeneous classroom within their grade to be instructed by a teacher that has had specialized training in differentiating for gifted learners (used in K-5 classes)
Refers to the condition whereby the administrative authority for education is vested in a central body (not in the local community). This central body has complete power over all resources: money, information, people, technology. It decides the content of curriculum, controls the budget, is responsible for employment, the building of educational facilities, discipline policies, etc.
Refers to the extent to which authority has been passed down to the individual school. Site-based management is an example of decentralization in which individual schools can make their own decisions related to finances and curriculum (however, the locus of power remains with the central body)
Democratic School Leadership
Decisions based on majority rule (an expansion of communication between school leaders and the superintendent)
Paternalistic School Leadership
Superintendent's main priority is the emotional and social well-being of the school leadership and staff members
Extent to which ALL program elements are assessed
Multi-age instruction
Children can progress at their own rate
Most important objective in WRITTEN communication
Gear the message to the intended audience
In-School-Suspension Programs (ISS)
MUST focus on the behavior itself and deal with the misbehavior as a symptom of an underlying problem
Acceptable Use Policy
These policies are primarily geared towards protecting the safety of young people against inappropriate language, pornography, and other questionable influences
Lau v. Nichols
Students must be taught in a language they understand
Qualitative Research
Considers all aspects of decision making, observes human behavior, and uses smaller research groups
Quantitative Research
Uses statistics, hypotheses, and theories. Uses a system of measurement in the collection of information (empirical)
Autocratic Involvement
Leader makes the decision alone
Participative Involvement/Leadership
Leader searches for participation and input from key people (used often in an open school community)
Laissez-faire Involvement
Leader allows others to make decisions (this is the least favorable method as it allows for inconsistencies to occur in the management of the school)
Five essential factors that help a leader determine which level of involvement to utilize
Time, Staff Interest, Expertise of the staff, Level of need of the decision, Support for decision
Free Discussion
Group Decision-Making Type: Allows for open discussion without suggestions, staff develops the solution
Developmental Discussion
Group Decision-Making Type: Structure is placed on the problem (problem is broken into smaller parts with specific goals)
Nine Steps of Decision Making
State the problem, Seek information, Review options, Assess information, Collect input, Select the best alternative, Gather support, Implement a plan, Evaluate
Situational Model (Satisficing) of Decision Making
Leader chooses a decision that satisfies stakeholders based on consensus even if it does not seem to be the best choice (used for complex issues that allow time to consider the information and possible options)
Scientific Model (Rational, Optimizing, Classical) of Decision Making
Leader seeks the best possible decision using all the steps of decision making (used for simple problems with solid information)
Incremental Model of Decision Making
Leader may not know what to do or how to process a decision to satisfy stakeholders, so he may just proceed with small changes to attempt improvement (trial and error)
Mixed Scanning Model of Decision Making
Leader makes the proper decision in steps but in accordance with school philosophy and mission
Garbage Can Model of Decision Making
Leader tries to implement action used before, but may not align with philosophy, mission, or gain support to be successful (act of desperation)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act: Federal law that provides partial funding to states to educate students receiving special education services
6 Major Principles of IDEA
Free appropriate public education, Appropriate evaluation, Individualized education plan, Least restrictive environment, Parent participation, Procedural safeguards
IDEA: Zero Reject
Educational philosophy which says that no child can be denied an education because they are "uneducable"
IDEA: Procedural safeguards
(One of 6 Major Principles of IDEA) Help parents and students enforce their rights under federal law
IDEA: Appropriate Evaluation
(One of 6 Major Principles of IDEA) Must be implemented by a team of knowledgeable and trained evaluators, must utilize sound evaluation materials and procedures, and must be administered on a non-discriminatory basis
IDEA: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
(One of 6 Major Principles of IDEA) Strong emphasis on placement in a general education setting
IDEA: Parent Participation
(One of 6 Major Principles of IDEA) Ensure that the parents of a child with a disability are members of any group that makes decisions regarding the placement and LRE of that child
IDEA: Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
(One of 6 Major Principles of IDEA) Written document, developed by an IEP team, which draws upon existing evaluation information in order to meet a student's unique educational needs
No Child Left Behind (2001)
Primary goals: all children will be proficient in all subject matters as of 2014; all teachers must be highly qualified by 2014
Gifted and Talented Education Act (1988)
Provides funding to support the exceptional needs of students in the areas of identification, education, and programming
Education Consolidation Act (1981)
Merged the Federal Office of Gifted and Talented with other federal programs so states could receive block grants to determine which programs and students to support
Jacob K Javits Gifted and Talented Student Education Act (1988)
Federal funds were provided to students considered economically disadvantaged who demonstrate limited English proficiency or have a disability while also identified gifted and talented
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Gives public access to information that a government institution may possess
Age Discrimination Act (1967)
Governs nondiscrimination based on age in the Department of Education programs and activities
Title IX (1972)
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, 1965)
The most far-reaching federal legislation affecting education ever passed by the United States Congress, funds primary and secondary education
Higher Education Act (HEA, 1965)
The federal law that governs the administration of federal student aid programs
Standards-based Assessment
Criterion-referenced or norm-referenced test that measures progress toward meeting goals or standards (formal assessment)
Portfolio Assessment
An informal method of gathering information based on completed products over a designated period of time
Performance Assessment
An informal measure used to evaluate a student's ability to complete a task
An informal evaluation of student performance and behaviors as determined by watching the student in several different settings and at different times
Dynamic Assessment
A test used to determine a student's ABILITY to learn in a certain situation rather than documenting what the student actually learned
Anecdotal Records
An informal measure based on collection of observations of student work and performance, often used for parent conferences and to adjust learning strategies
Ecological-based Assessment
An informational observation of students interacting with the environment during a regularly scheduled day
Norm-Referenced Tests
A formal tool referred to as a standardized test when comparing students, helpful in curriculum development and identifying strategies
Curriculum Based Measure
Method teachers use to find out how students are progressing in basic academic areas; helpful to parents because it provides current, week-by-week information on progress
The process of gathering information to determine specific needs of individual students
Achievement Test
A formal tool used to measure student proficiency
Active Student Response Method
Used to determine a student's participation rate
Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC)
Six strands: A school administrator has and emphasizes... A clear vision of learning; School culture and instructional program; effective management of facilities; Collaboration with stakeholders; Acts with integrity, fairness, and ethics; promotes the larger political contexts.
6 Strands of ISLLC
Six strands: A school administrator has and emphasizes... A clear vision of learning; School culture and instructional program; effective management of facilities; Collaboration with stakeholders; Acts with integrity, fairness, and ethics; promotes the larger political contexts.
Characteristics of an Effective Leader
Knowledge in setting goals and stating a clear mission; Possesses strong communication skills; Understands quality instruction; Coordinates with staff; Collaborates with community; Supports students, staff, and parents; Creates a safe environment.
Community expectations of a school leader
Honest, considerate, respectful, caring, optimistic, and knowledgeable.
Indirect method
Teachers manage their classrooms and make decisions regarding students (creates a feeling of trust and confidence)
Direct Method
Administration is highly involved in making top-down decisions and creating influences that may stifle a teacher's motivational creativity
Contingency Leadership Style
Changes the way that they lead depending on the group involved and the situation at hand
3 styles of leadership (Lewis, 1939)
Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez-faire
Five styles of leadership (Likert, 1960s)
Exploitative, Authoritative, Benevolent authoritative, Consultative, and Participative
Authoritarian Leadership Style
Leader makes decision on his own, without much input from the group
Dictatoral Leadership Style
Leader makes decisions and expects the employees to follow (ivory tower philosophy)
Task Oriented Leadership Style
Transactional Leadership Style
Leader places emphasis on procedures and short term tasks
Strategic Plan
A set of decisions about what the school will do, why the school pursues those goal-based decisions, and how the school will accomplish the goals (allows administrator to plan for and manage change, rather than react to it)
Goal Based Model
Commonly used, it emphasizes vision, mission, and values by setting key goals, establishing strategies, and designing an action plan to achieve success
Issues Based Model
Determines the issues needing to be addressed, and the strategies focus on specific issues with an action plan in place
Organic Based Model
Reviews the vision and values and creates an action plan based on those components
10 Key Steps in Strategic Planning
Select team committee, Determine process model, Evaluate strengths and weaknesses, List critical questions, Review the vision, Develop goals, Expand upon key strategies, Write an action plan, Finalize the strategic plan, Implement and monitor
Members of a Strategic Planning Team
Faculty, students, parents, administrators, support staff, community members
5 Stages of Group Creation (Tuckman, 1965)
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning
Consensus Building
Collaborative problem solving, shared culture and goals
8 Steps of Consensus Building
Recruitment and identification of participants, Designation of process, Definition of problem, Potential solutions, Period of decision making, Potential barriers, Implementation of acceptable plan, Evaluation
Conflict Resolution
Actively responding to conflict within a group in order to establish a working team
Collaboration Model
Involvement of all parties in seeking a solution to a conflict (most recommended method of conflict management)
Difference in Expectations
The needs of individuals conflict with the needs of the organization
Difference in Beliefs
The opinions of individuals conflict with opinions or ideas of organization (policies, values, and goals)
5 Styles of Conflict Management (Thomas, 1976)
Competitive, collaboration, compromising, avoiding, accommodating
Competitive Conflict Management (Thomas)
Gives directives, rather than totally addressing the issue, and act from authority, expertise, or persuasion
Collaborative Conflict Management (Thomas)
Uses problem solving strategies and meets the needs of all
Compromising Conflict Management (Thomas)
Offers a short term or temporary fix that partially satisfies all especially when a deadline is looming
Avoiding Conflict Management (Thomas)
Ignores or evades the issue, which is generally a poor choice, since emotions will remain high and tasks may be left undone
Accommodating Conflict Management (Thomas)
One party tries to avoid or gives in to the other party
SES (What does it stand for?)
Socioeconomic status
3 major factors of student achievement
Home environment, cognitive characteristics, affective characteristics
Home environment (one of the three major factors of student achievement)
Is considered by some studies the most powerful influence on a student's education
Cognitive characteristics (one of the three major factors of student achievement)
Intelligence, aptitude, background knowledge, and experiences
Affective characteristics (one of the three major factors of student achievement)
Motivation, Interest, engagement
Theory of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Teacher's expectations impact their behavior toward the student and the student will become what is expected
4 methods used to convey expectations to students
Climate, Feedback, Input, and Output
Non-verbal mood or spirit of the person holding the expectations to students
Tools for getting teachers to create a climate of high achievment
Provide teacher training, Change the School Climate, Check the Curriculum, Address the Environment, Focus on School Evaluation
School-wide enrichment model (Gifted and Talented enrichment program)
Allowing students with disabilities to be placed with their same age peers in their neighborhood schools
Equality in Educational Opportunity (1966)
Also known as the Coleman Study, commissioned to assess the availability of equal educational opportunities
National Education Standards and Improvement Council
Established by Goals 2000 and intended to provide an independent, voluntary certification of state academic standards
Goals 2000: Educate America Act
Set by the U.S. Congress in the 1990s to set goals for standards-based education reform by the year 2000
Sex Discrimination Act (1975)
Equal opportunities for all students (gender) who access and participate in the curriculum, school programs, and assessments
Second Language Learners
Corner Process
A model of establishing three different community teams that promote positive school climates (School management team, Student and Staff support team, Parent team), created by James Corner in the 1980s
English Language Learners / English Second Language Learners
Joseph Renzulli
Studied gifted students, created SEM (Schoolwide Enrichment Model) in the 1970s
Communication (different examples)
Can include: newsletters, brochures, letters, notices, websites, blogs, emails, text messages, and telephone conversations
Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1991)
Students who are subjected to sexual harassment in public schools may sue for monetary damages
Lamb v. Panhandle (1975)
Suspension is procedural regardless as to where it lands on the school calendar (thus a student missing the last three days of school due to suspension, causing him or her to fail classes, is within the school's rights)
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Established the Lemon Test, which details the requirements for legislation concerning religion (laws cannot promote or inhibit religion)
Board of Education v. Allen (1968)
Okay to led textbooks to parochial schools free of charge
Cleveland Board of Education v. LeFleur (1974)
Mandatory maternity leave (can't force a woman to take early maternity leave nor mandate how long she is gone when the baby is born)
Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
Busing parochial students (reimbursement of parents busing students to catholic schools on public transportation is not a violation of 1st amendment when it is part of a general transportation reimbursement scheme)
The Committee for Educational Rights v. Edgar (1996)
The writers of the state's constitution (Illinois) chose to make education only a "goal" rather than a "right"
Grayned v. City of Rockford (1972)
Picketing near school (citizens have a broad right to freely express their political views in a variety of public places)
Ingraham v. Wright (1977)
Corporal punishment (students can't be paddled without a hearing)
McCollum v. Board of Education (1948)
Using public facilities for religious instruction in schools violates the establishment clause
Winkleman v. Parma (2007)
Parents can represent themselves in IDEA litigation
Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association v. Brentwood (2007)
Anti-recruiting rules do not violate the first amendment
Aguilar v. Felton (1985)
Providing Title 1 programs in parochial schools violates the lemon test (entanglement of church and state)
Board of Education v. Earls (2002)
Student drug testing: requiring all students to consent to drug testing if they want to participate in extracurricular activities is legal
Gebser v. Lago Vista School District (1998)
Students who are sexually taunted, groped, or harassed by their teachers cannot sue school districts for money damages unless a district official actually knew about the abuse and did nothing about it
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000)
School prayer: allowing student initiated prayer in high school football games violates the establishment clause
New Jersey v. T. L. O. (1985)
Student Search allowed at a lower level than law enforcement (constitutionality of a search of a public high school student for contraband)
Parents v. Seattle (2007)
Local school districts cannot use race to balance school populations
Morse v. Frederick (2007)
School District is allowed to restrict students' pro-illegal drug speech at school event.
Abington Township v. Schempp (1963)
Declared school-sponsored Bible reading in public schools to be unconstitutional
Bethel v. Fraser (1986)
Schools giving disciplinary sanctions for profane language is not a violation of the 1st amendment
Good News Club v. Milford Central School District (2001)
When a government operates a "limited public forum," it may not discriminate against speech that takes place within that forum on the basis of the viewpoint it expresses
Zorach v. Clausen (1952)
Release for religious instruction: acceptable if the instruction takes place away from school campus and is not publicly funded
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley (1982)
Requirement of public schools to provide an appropriate education to students with disabilities
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985)
Silent prayer in schools: violates the lemon law and is not allowed
United States v. Lopez (1995)
Laws prohibiting guns near schools as a criminal statute is not a violation of the 2nd amendment
Stone v. Graham (1980)
Posting 10 Commandments at school is unconstitutional
Shelton v. Tucker (1960)
Ruled that requiring all public school educators to disclose every organization to which they were affiliated was unconstitutional
Owasso v. Falvo (2002)
Peer grading banned (FERPA)
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988)
Student's speech can be regulated by the school if the school has a legitimate concern
Lamb's chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District (1993)
School facility use by religious groups is permitted
Mitchell v. Helms (2000)
It is permitted for loans to be made to religious schools
Mueller v. Allen (1983)
State income tax deduction available for expenses incurred in sending children to public as well as private religious schools does not violate the Establishment Clause of the Constitution (satisfies the Lemon Test)
Serrano v. Priest (1971)
Funding: districts can receive higher funding due to lack of taxes
Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District v. Pico by Pico (1982)
Board of Education's decision to ban certain books from its junior high and high school libraries, based on their content, violated the First Amendment's freedom of speech protections
Multi-age Classes
Grouping by Ability
Common Core State Standards
Cooperative Learning
STEM Consideration
Project-based Learning
Mission Statement of a School
Crisis Management Team
Tabletop Exercises
Sub-skill Reading Assessment Scores
Longitudinal Reading Achievement
Portfolio Assessment
Authentic Assessment
Interest Inventory
Criterion-referenced Test
Norm-referenced Test
Race to the Top Initiative
SDM (Shared Decision Making)
Interpersonal Communication
Weighted Pupil Unit Formula
Hawthorne Effect
Plant Operation
Middle School Reform Movement
PBIS (Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports)
Capital Outlay
Reflective Baseline
PLC (Professional Learning Communities)