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57 terms

Urinary System

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Structures of the urinary system
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, 1 urethra
Renal cortex
outside of the kidneys
Renal Medula
inside of the kidneys
Minor Calyx
funnel at the end of nephrons
Major Calyces
funnel that receives urine from many minor calyces
Ureter
tube the gets urine from renal Pelvis
Nephrons
structural and functional unit of the kidneys
Number of Nephrons
1 million per kidney
Function of Nephrons
form urine to clean blood
Glomerulus
ball of capillaries
Renal Tubule parts
Bowman's, capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henley, distal convoluted tubule, collection ducts
Bowman's Capsule
a funnel that surrounds the glomerulus
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
a twisted tube that is next to bowman's capsule
Loop of Henle
a long tube that goes down then back up
Distal Convoluted Tubule
twisted tube after the loop of Henle
Collecting Duct
collects urine from many nephrons, only part to reach the medula
Afferent Arteriole
allows blood to enter glomerulus
Efferent Arteriole
allows blood to exit glomerulus
Peritubule Capillaries
capillaries that surround the renal tubule allowing reabsorption
3 processes of Urine formation
Filtration, Reabsorption, and secretion
Filtration
removal of all plasma (water, dissolved substances such as urea) occurs as a result of pressure in the glomerulus
Avg. Daily Filtrate amount
180 L
Urea
a safe form of ammonia
Filtrate
everything that is removed during filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
reabsorption of important material from the filtrate
What is reabsorbed
water, glucose, nutrients
How much water is reabsorbed
99% 178.2L/180L
Tubular secretion
the addition of materials such as H+ ions,drugs, ect. to filtrate
Urine composition
Water, urea, H+ ions and drugs
Avg. amount of Urine produced in a day
1-1.8L
Purpose of water sacrifice
to remove dangerous nitrogenous wastes (urea)
More H20 in urine =
less H20 in Blood =
more salt in urine =
less salt in blood=
More acid (H+ ions) in urine =
less acid (h+ ions) in blood=
Renin/ Angiotensin system
system that controls vasoconstriction and water levels
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
secrets Renin
when Renin/ angiotensin is secreted
when bp is low
Angiotensin Converting enzyme
converts angiotensin to angiotensin II
Angiotensin II
causes systemic vasoconstriction
Aldosterone
a mineral corticoid
Aldosterone gland
adrenal cortex
Aldosterone secretion
when bp is low
Aldosterone effect
causes additional NA+ ions to be reabsorbed in peritubular capillaries --> increases amount of H20 in blood increasing BP
Antidiuretic hormone
increases BP without adding Salt
Antidiuretic hormone secretion
Low bp secreted from posterior pituitary gland
Antidiuretic hormone effect
causes an increase in amount of H2O reabsorbed
how urine gets to bladder
urine exits the kidneys through ureters
how much can bladder hold
600mL
urethra
drains Urine from the bladder
internal urethral sphincter
involuntary sphincter
external urethral sphincter
voluntary sphincter
Micturition
act of draining bladder
Diabetes Mellitus cause
(Sweet) lack of insulin results in high levels of Blood sugar
Diabetes Mellitus effect
production of urine that contains a lot of sugar
Diabetes Insipidus cause
(Sour) Caused by lack of Antidiuretic Hormone
Diabetes insipidus effect
Lots of Diluted urine is produced ( lots of H2O few waste and glucose)
renal pelvis
major calyces drain into this