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Structures of the urinary system

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, 1 urethra

Renal cortex

outside of the kidneys

Renal Medula

inside of the kidneys

Minor Calyx

funnel at the end of nephrons

Major Calyces

funnel that receives urine from many minor calyces


tube the gets urine from renal Pelvis


structural and functional unit of the kidneys

Number of Nephrons

1 million per kidney

Function of Nephrons

form urine to clean blood


ball of capillaries

Renal Tubule parts

Bowman's, capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henley, distal convoluted tubule, collection ducts

Bowman's Capsule

a funnel that surrounds the glomerulus

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

a twisted tube that is next to bowman's capsule

Loop of Henle

a long tube that goes down then back up

Distal Convoluted Tubule

twisted tube after the loop of Henle

Collecting Duct

collects urine from many nephrons, only part to reach the medula

Afferent Arteriole

allows blood to enter glomerulus

Efferent Arteriole

allows blood to exit glomerulus

Peritubule Capillaries

capillaries that surround the renal tubule allowing reabsorption

3 processes of Urine formation

Filtration, Reabsorption, and secretion


removal of all plasma (water, dissolved substances such as urea) occurs as a result of pressure in the glomerulus

Avg. Daily Filtrate amount

180 L


a safe form of ammonia


everything that is removed during filtration

Tubular Reabsorption

reabsorption of important material from the filtrate

What is reabsorbed

water, glucose, nutrients

How much water is reabsorbed

99% 178.2L/180L

Tubular secretion

the addition of materials such as H+ ions,drugs, ect. to filtrate

Urine composition

Water, urea, H+ ions and drugs

Avg. amount of Urine produced in a day


Purpose of water sacrifice

to remove dangerous nitrogenous wastes (urea)

More H20 in urine =

less H20 in Blood =

more salt in urine =

less salt in blood=

More acid (H+ ions) in urine =

less acid (h+ ions) in blood=

Renin/ Angiotensin system

system that controls vasoconstriction and water levels

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

secrets Renin

when Renin/ angiotensin is secreted

when bp is low

Angiotensin Converting enzyme

converts angiotensin to angiotensin II

Angiotensin II

causes systemic vasoconstriction


a mineral corticoid

Aldosterone gland

adrenal cortex

Aldosterone secretion

when bp is low

Aldosterone effect

causes additional NA+ ions to be reabsorbed in peritubular capillaries --> increases amount of H20 in blood increasing BP

Antidiuretic hormone

increases BP without adding Salt

Antidiuretic hormone secretion

Low bp secreted from posterior pituitary gland

Antidiuretic hormone effect

causes an increase in amount of H2O reabsorbed

how urine gets to bladder

urine exits the kidneys through ureters

how much can bladder hold



drains Urine from the bladder

internal urethral sphincter

involuntary sphincter

external urethral sphincter

voluntary sphincter


act of draining bladder

Diabetes Mellitus cause

(Sweet) lack of insulin results in high levels of Blood sugar

Diabetes Mellitus effect

production of urine that contains a lot of sugar

Diabetes Insipidus cause

(Sour) Caused by lack of Antidiuretic Hormone

Diabetes insipidus effect

Lots of Diluted urine is produced ( lots of H2O few waste and glucose)

renal pelvis

major calyces drain into this

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