29 terms

APES - Rock Cycle

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compaction
A step in lithification; pressure due to the settling of other materials forcing sediment closer together
cementation
a step in lithification; as heat and pressure increase the sediments can change chemically, this allows sediments to be "locked" or "glued" together into a solid rock
mineral
naturally occurring substance, with definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure
erosion
the transport of fragments of rock by water, wind, ice, or gravity
lava
molten rock that has erupted onto Earth's surface
magma
molten rock below Earth's surface
rock cycle
a continuous series of processes through which rock is transformed from one type to another.
slate
A type of Metamorphic rock that was once shale rock formed by heat and pressure.
shale
A sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay.
igneous rock
rock that forms as molten rock cools
metamorphic rock
rock that forms as heat and pressure cause changes to an existing rock
sedimentary rock
This rock type forms as loose materials called sediments become cemented together. Usually, these rocks have layers.
uplift
Rocks that have been buried are exposed at Earth's surface because forces inside the Earth pushing them to the surface.
sediments
little pieces of weathered rock, plant remains, and animal remains
heat and pressure
These two forces work together to transform rocks deep inside Earth's crust.
weathering
This is the breaking down of rocks. It can be caused by wind, rain, ice, or gravity.
wind
This causes the most erosion in dry areas that get little rainfall.
cooling
This is the process that forms igneous rock.
intrusive igneous rock
This igneous rock formed underground as magma cools slowly. Because it cools slowly, the crystals inside the rock grow very large.
extrusive igneous rock
This igneous rock forms as erupted lava cools quickly on Earth's surface. Because it cools so quickly, these rocks have very, very tiny crystals.
texture
how a rock looks and feels; determined by grain size, rate of cooling and composition
coarse grain
slower rate of cooling causes this; Larger crystalline grains
fine grain
faster rate of cooling causes this; smaller crystalline grains
deposition
occurs when sediments settle on the ground or a body of water
lithification
process which turns sediment into sedimentary rock; compaction and cementation
contact metamorphism
when hot magma moves into a chunk of rock, heats it up, and hardens again; results in large scale mineral changes with little deformation
regional metamorphism
when a whole region (area) of rock are put under extreme pressure and heat
foliated
a classification of a metamorphic rock that has visible layers or bands
nonfoliated
a classification of a metamorphic rock that does not have visible layers or bands

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