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the arrangement of the narration based on the cause-effect relationship of the events


the main character in a work, who may or may not be heroic


a poetic stanza of four lines


the practice in literature of attempting to describe nature and life without idealization and without attention to detail


a repeated stanza or line(s) in a poem or song


the development of action in a work, usually at the beginning

rising action

the repetition of the same or similar sounds, most often at the ends of lines


the modulation of weak and strong (stressed and unstressed) elements in the flow of speech


a form of verbal irony in which apparent praise is actually harshly or bitterly critical


a literary work that holds up human failings to ridicule and censure


the analysis of a verse to show its meter


the time and place of the action in a story, poem, or play


also called an English sonnet: a sonnet form that divides the poem into three units of four lines each and a final unit of two lines, usually abab cdcd efef gg

shakespearean sonnet

another name for concrete poetry: poetry that is shaped to look like an object

shaped verse

a direct, explicit comparison of one thing to another, usually using words like or as to draw the connection


a monologue in which the character in a play is alone and speaking only to himself or herself


the person, not necessarily the author, who is the voice of a poem


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