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Biology Chapters 4 and 5 Test
Terms in this set (91)
Plants and some other types of organisms that make food for themselves using light energy
Cannot make their own food or directly use the sun's energy. (Ex: Humans)
Primary light absorbing pigment in autotrophs and found in chloroplasts
Chlorophyll in Autumn
Pigments in leaves fade to orange of carotenoids because the chlorophyll decades
Unit of Light
Light can be produced in a mixture of...
Energy from the sun enters _________________ as photons
Different wavelengths have...
What are wavelengths measured in?
Prism, Oil, Rainbow
Examples of full visible light spectrum
Found in all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, and makes photosynthesis possible. This participates directly in light reactions. it takes energy from chlorophyll b
An accessory pigment that acts indirectly in photosynthesis by transferring absorbed light to chlorophyll a
CO2 + H2O ---light energy---- C6H12O6 + O2
Cellular Respiration Formula
C6H12O6 +O2 ---- CO2 + H2O + ATP energy
Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
1. Amount of water
3. Amount of light energy
4. Amount of CO2
created nor destroyed
Energy cannot be...
Forms of Energy
Light, Heat, Electrical, Chemical, Mechanical
In chemical bonds
Where is energy stored?
Adenosine Triphosphate (3 phosphates)
Make up of ATP
3 phosphate bonds, a nitrogen base: adenine, and a ribose sugar
Adenine Diphosphate (2 phosphates)
Make up of ADP
2 phosphate bonds, a nitrogen base: adenine, and a ribose sugar
Stuff containing ATP
1. Active Transport
2. Movement in cells
4. Protein synthesis
5. Cellular Respiration
a few seconds
ATP gives enough energy for
Cannot store energy well
Plant's source of food
Glucose vs. ATP
1 molecule of glucose stores 90x more chemical energy than 1 molecule of ATP
Uses energy to convert H2O and CO2 into O2 and high energy carbs (glucose)
Priestley's Experiment 1771
Burned a candle in bell jar until it went out. Placed sprig of mint in jar for few days and candle relights and burns out.
The plant gave the candle O2 and the mint gave the candle CO2
Why did the candle relight with the sprig of mint?
Ingenhousz's Experiment (1779)
Put a candle and a sprig on mint in a jar in daylight and the candle lit. Put a candle and a sprig of mint in a jar in the dark, and it didn't light up. (did the same without a potato in light and no results.)
What is necessary for plants to produce the burning gas. (O2)
Showed Priestly's results only occurred in the presence of sunlight
Melvin Calvin 1948
He traced the path of CO2 forming glucose and said light is not needed.
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
The liquid portion of the chloroplast (like the cytoplasm)
Stacks of thylakoids
Pores in leaves that cause gases to be flowed in and out
Light dependent reactions occur here
Olive Oil Lab
Different amounts of chlorophyll in different types olive oil which absorbs differently. This leads to different wavelengths.
Made up of chlorophyll molecules and embedded in the thylakoid membranes
Final stage of light reaction
The first stage of light reaction. It absorbs the photon (light energy)
Light Dependent Reaction
The thylakoid membranes take in light and H2O and release O2. The two byproducts are ATP and NADPH.
ATP and NADPH
Two energy carriers
The reduced form of NADPH
Takes in ATP and NADPH. This releases NADP+ and ADP+P
How many cycles of the Calvin Cycle does it take to produce one glucose molecule
Manipulated variable in the chlorophyll lab
Puts CO2 back into the atmosphere and used O2 to release energy from food.
By breaking the bonds
How do we get energy from ATP?
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Both of these perform cellular respiration
During cellular respiration
When is ATP made in the body?
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain
3 stages of cellular respiration
In the cytoplasm
Where does Glycolysis take place?
In the matrix of the mitochondria
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
In the cristae of mitochondria
Where does the Electron Transport Chain take place?
It does not require oxygen.Which process yields 2 pyruvic acid molecules, 2 NADH, and 4 ATP?
The Krebs Cycle
It requires oxygen and uses the pyruvic acid from Glycolysis to make CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH2. 2 ATP molecules are produced by the end
NADH and FADH2
Two electron carriers
When is the majority of ATP made during cellular respiration?
Electron Transport Chain
The O2 bonds with the H+ to create H2O. 32 ATP molecules are produced
How many ATP molecules are produced during cellular respiration in eukaryotes?
How many ATP molecules are produced during cellular respiration in prokaryotes?
Lactic Acid and Alcoholic
Two types of fermentation
Fermentation does not require
Ethyl alcohol and CO2
Product of alcoholic
Lactic Acid (No CO2)
Product of Lactic Acid
Releases energy from food molecules and produces ATP
Balanced Cellular Respiration
6O2 + C6H12C6--------- 6CO2 +6H20+ATP energy
6CO2 + 6H20 ------- 6O2 + Glucose
After Glycolysis when there is no O2
When does fermentation occur?
Coverts pyruvic acid made in Glycolysis into ethyl alcohol and CO2
Types of Alcoholic Fermentation
Produces Alcoholic beverages, bread dough rises, yeast cells run out of O2, dough ferments and produces air bubbles, occurs in beer, wine, yogurt, and alcoholic products.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Coverts pyruvic acid into Lactic Acid and does not produce CO2
In Human muscles
Where does Lactic Acid Fermentation take place?
Red, violet, and blue
Which colors of light are BEST absorbed by plants?
The photosynthesis rate increases
If you continue to increase the intensity of light that a plant receives, what happens?
Used by organisms to store chemical energy
During cellular respiration, the complete breakdown of glucose yield _________ molecules.
ATP releases energy when the bonds between _______________ groups are broken.
During glycolysis, NADH is formed when hydrogen atoms are transferred to __________.
ATP, CO2, and NADH
Three products of glycolysis
What is the starting molecule for the Kreb's cycle?
Can plants survive without animals?
ATP and NADPH
What does the light dependent reaction release?
ADP+P and NADP+
What does the Calvin Cycle release?
Plants gather energy with light absorbing molecules called
as 1 molecule of glucose
In the Krebs Cycle, the 3 carbon molecule are released
Key in the production of yogurt
repaying an oxygen debt
Breathing heavily after running a race is
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