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The chemical process where plants use the sun's energy to produce sugars (food).

Cell Membrane

a thin, phospholipid bilayer, membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell that regulates what enters and exits the cell.


A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.


structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made.

Endoplasmic reticulum

a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.


organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place.

Selective permeability

a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out.

Passive Transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy.


an organism that makes its own food.

Cellular Respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food.


The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs; during this stage, the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares to divide.


The stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle (third step).


The basic unit of structure and function in living things.


The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell.


Membrane bound structure inside a cell that performs a specific function.


Thin, hollow cylinders made of protein that provide structural support for eukaryotic cells.

Golgi Appartus

Organelle that packages and distrubutes molecules produced by the eurokaryotic cell.


An organelle that is the main site of energy conversion through cellular respiration.


Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration.


Group of similar cells that work together to do one job.


Organism that obtains food by eating other organisms.


Process that does not require oxygen.


The final stage of mitosis or meiosis during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes.


Division of the cytoplasm during cell division.

Cell Theory

States that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and all cells come from other cells.


A jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.


Long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins.


Solid rod of protein, thinner than a microtubule, that enables a cell to move or change shape.


A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.


A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.

Facilitated Diffusion

When substances transport across cell membranes using protein carrier molecules.


a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.


green pigment in the ch that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis.


Process that requires oxygen.


The first phase of mitosis. During prophase the replicated chromosomes condense, the spindle is formed, and the nuclear envelope breaks apart into vessicles.

Cell Wall

Strong outermost layer around the cell membrane of ONLY plants and some bacteria.


A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles


A coiled structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material.


A tiny structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made.


A water-filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area.


Movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Active Transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy.

Organ System

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.


The process of cell division in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei.


The stage of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator.

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