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the systematic organized study of human sexual behavior in all aspects


a person who has expert academic knowledge in sexual science and who devotes himself or herself to the objective empirical study of sexuality


defines human sexuality as a dimension of our personality that encompasses our sexual beliefs attitudes values behaviors and knowledge

biological domain

explores male and female anatomy and physiology gender and genetics

sexual differentiation

the prenatal physiological and anatomical differentiation into male and female

sexual hormones

not only direct sexual differentiation in the womb but they also continue to influence sexual maturation through puberty

sexual orientation

refers to whether a person is heterosexual homosexual or bisexual
refers to the focus of a persons erotic desires or fantasize or a persons affectionate or romantic feelings towards a particular gender

sexual health

the development of sexual attitudes about sexuality and sexual behavior: includes sexual decision making and interpersonal communication skills

psychosexual domain

refers to the social and emotional/psychological aspects of sexuality. Takes into consideration our psychological development and experiences in the context of our social development and a blending of sorts of the sexual aspects of our personality with other psychological factors

Feelings and emotions

experiences of love and loving; self concept and self worth

interpersonal relationships

gender roles the significance of friends to our psychosocial and psychosexual development, marriage

social identity theory

helps us understand how people identify and define themselves through the social groups with which they belong

collectivists culture

individuals define their identity in terms of the relationships they hold with others

individualistic culture

people define their identity or sense of self in terms of personal attributes and promote individual over group goals


the depth to which a person experiences the sacred or a deity


an individuals preference for religious expression. religious principles and spirituality have a marked effect on the conduct in individuals in all areas of their lives

iwan bloch

the father of sexology. coined sexology, which refers to the theoretical and scientific study of sex

karl ulrichs

through his publications about the theory on Uranism or "third gender" men whom believes possessed female souls and were thus attracted to men

clelia mosher

an advocate for womens sexual health. her personal goal was to debunk the prevailing idea that female menstruation was an insurmountable barrier that kept women home and out of the workforce

havelock ellis

an agitator for sexual reform: one of the first to recognize the existence of female sexuality and that women had the right t sexual pleasure

Sigmund freud

developed the five stage theory that all children have a sexual love for their mothers and a sexual jealousy of their fathers.


psychic energy

William masters and Virginia johnson

promoters of change. they pioneered research into the psychological responses of human sexuality as well as the diagnosis and treatment of sexual disorders and dysfunctions. used EKG

Pleasure principle

states that whenever possible energy is discharged without delay

reality principle

small amounts of energy are discharged only after a delay and only following an indirect route

basic instincts

eros: sex self preservation love life force striving towards unity


a culturally or morally higher goal object is substituted for the truly desired object

the ID

the set of innate desire and is the main source of psychic energy. wants immediate satisfaction

The ego

is developed because it is needed for the physical and psychological survival. possesses secondary thought process. secondary processes ration and includes intellectual activities such as organized perception, logical thought, problem solving and memory. involves the reality principle


delaying or forgetting danger

reaction formation

acting opposite of how one feels


attributing ones unaccepted impulses to others


returning to an earlier form of behavior


remaining at the present level. occurs when the present mode of satisfaction is so gratifying that the child does not want to give it up during pressure


arises when children resolve their Oedipus complex and develop identification with their parents. has the conscience (parent prohibitions) and ego ideal (standard of conduct to which a child strives) societys way of achieving order


consists primarily of thoughts and feelings, repressed and therefore unknown


capable of becoming conscious because it is not actively barred form consciousness


perceptual conscious: what a person is aware of at a given moment

Oral stage (birth to 1 year old)

pleasure flows from the satisfaction of oral drives; sucking chewing eating and biting to five sexual gratifications

Anal stage (1 to 3 year old)

the psychological need to defecate creates tension, which is relieved by defecation

Phallic Stage (3 to 5 year old)

pleasures and problems center on the genital areas. stimulation in the genital areas begins tension, and if the tensions are relieved, pleasure. the problem of this stage is directed to the parent of the opposite sex.

Period of latency (after age 5)

relatively calm, when sexual drives are repressed. play primarily with children of the same sex. ego and superego continues to develop

Genital stage (adolescence)

channeled into adult sexuality. important achievement is balance between love and work


stimulate research in areas of moral development: sex typing, identification, parent-child relations attachments, aggression, and self regulation. remain active areas in research today


primary methods (free association, dream analysis, and transference) pose difficulty: training is long and expensive, experimenter error, adult recollections of childhood and recent dreams are unlikely to be unaccurate. uncertain testability of central claims concerning development, overemphasis on childhood sexuality


biological influences of gender


environmental influences of gender

psychosocial influence

how a person feels about what nature and nuture inpose


refers to the biological traits that distinguish males from females


the sum of our development and life course experience and encompasses a number of characteristics

sexual reproduction

the sexual union that produces offspring

androgen or testosterone

the masculinizing sex hormones


substances such as alcohol or cigarettes or environment factor such as lead paint that can cause prenatal damage leading to congenital birth defect or those present at birth

observational learning

can be much broader than mimicking another persons behavior. the child can symbolically construct a new behavior by listening to another person or simply by reading.


observation of which behavior around leads to reinforcement and punishment and use those source of information to make abstract rules, evaluate their performance, develop standards of conduct, set goals, and decide which situations to use the observed behavior.

reciprocal determinism

provides a model of behavior change. three sources of influence: the person, his behavior, and the environment (interact)


your genetics, race, ethnicity, age and biological sex


the choices and decisions you make, your responses and reactions to the incoming information I your daily life


your parents, school, peers, neighborhood, the media, the religious hierarchy, and the political structure of the culture in which you live.

gender socialization

refers to the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being a male or female, or of being feminine or masculine

gender roles

the cultural norms of mail and female attitude behaviors these roles delineate what is considered to be appropriate for people of a particular sex.


socially/culturally constructed set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shape manly character or manliness: it prescribes and defines how men should act or feel
new exaggerated version is called cool pose

hegemonic masculinity

every culture has an ideal dominant standard of masculinity to which men are to aim


the idea that men are superior over women and that men are socially and physically dominating


qualities behaviors and attitudes that are deemed by a particular culture to be ideal for girls and women

gender stereotypes

long held assumptions for labels about male and female capabilities and limitations

gender polarization or bipolar gender

rather than emphasize the similarities between men and women cultural viewpoints almost always emphasize the difference between men and women

inequality or gaps

societal status, wages, education, employment opportunities and advancement and social and intimate relationships

gender inequality

can be obvious or hidden disparities or discrimination in opportunities or advancements among individuals


prejudice of discrimination based on biological sex.
belief system basing human worth on the social structure of the differences of sexes.
ideology of male supremacy, superiority, and belief/behaviors that support and sustain ideology

gender identity

our intuitive sense of maleness of females, our internal feelings of what it is to be a man or woman


refers to people who feel their biologically assigned gender is false or incomplete description of themselves

gender dysmorphia

a gender identity disorder, a mental health classification that describes the longing to live and be accepted as the opposite sex

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