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73 terms

CAFS 243 Human Sexuality Test 1

STUDY
PLAY
sexology
the systematic organized study of human sexual behavior in all aspects
sexologists
a person who has expert academic knowledge in sexual science and who devotes himself or herself to the objective empirical study of sexuality
SIECUS
defines human sexuality as a dimension of our personality that encompasses our sexual beliefs attitudes values behaviors and knowledge
biological domain
explores male and female anatomy and physiology gender and genetics
sexual differentiation
the prenatal physiological and anatomical differentiation into male and female
sexual hormones
not only direct sexual differentiation in the womb but they also continue to influence sexual maturation through puberty
sexual orientation
refers to whether a person is heterosexual homosexual or bisexual
refers to the focus of a persons erotic desires or fantasize or a persons affectionate or romantic feelings towards a particular gender
sexual health
the development of sexual attitudes about sexuality and sexual behavior: includes sexual decision making and interpersonal communication skills
psychosexual domain
refers to the social and emotional/psychological aspects of sexuality. Takes into consideration our psychological development and experiences in the context of our social development and experiences.is a blending of sorts of the sexual aspects of our personality with other psychological factors
Feelings and emotions
experiences of love and loving; self concept and self worth
interpersonal relationships
gender roles the significance of friends to our psychosocial and psychosexual development, marriage
social identity theory
helps us understand how people identify and define themselves through the social groups with which they belong
collectivists culture
individuals define their identity in terms of the relationships they hold with others
individualistic culture
people define their identity or sense of self in terms of personal attributes and promote individual over group goals
spirituality
the depth to which a person experiences the sacred or a deity
religiosity
an individuals preference for religious expression. religious principles and spirituality have a marked effect on the conduct in individuals in all areas of their lives
iwan bloch
the father of sexology. coined sexology, which refers to the theoretical and scientific study of sex
karl ulrichs
through his publications about the theory on Uranism or "third gender" men whom believes possessed female souls and were thus attracted to men
clelia mosher
an advocate for womens sexual health. her personal goal was to debunk the prevailing idea that female menstruation was an insurmountable barrier that kept women home and out of the workforce
havelock ellis
an agitator for sexual reform: one of the first to recognize the existence of female sexuality and that women had the right t sexual pleasure
Sigmund freud
developed the five stage theory that all children have a sexual love for their mothers and a sexual jealousy of their fathers.
libido
psychic energy
William masters and Virginia johnson
promoters of change. they pioneered research into the psychological responses of human sexuality as well as the diagnosis and treatment of sexual disorders and dysfunctions. used EKG
Pleasure principle
states that whenever possible energy is discharged without delay
reality principle
small amounts of energy are discharged only after a delay and only following an indirect route
basic instincts
eros: sex self preservation love life force striving towards unity
sublimation
a culturally or morally higher goal object is substituted for the truly desired object
the ID
the set of innate desire and is the main source of psychic energy. wants immediate satisfaction
The ego
is developed because it is needed for the physical and psychological survival. possesses secondary thought process. secondary processes ration and includes intellectual activities such as organized perception, logical thought, problem solving and memory. involves the reality principle
repression
delaying or forgetting danger
reaction formation
acting opposite of how one feels
projection
attributing ones unaccepted impulses to others
regression
returning to an earlier form of behavior
fixation
remaining at the present level. occurs when the present mode of satisfaction is so gratifying that the child does not want to give it up during pressure
superergo
arises when children resolve their Oedipus complex and develop identification with their parents. has the conscience (parent prohibitions) and ego ideal (standard of conduct to which a child strives) societys way of achieving order
unconscious
consists primarily of thoughts and feelings, repressed and therefore unknown
preconscious
capable of becoming conscious because it is not actively barred form consciousness
conscious
perceptual conscious: what a person is aware of at a given moment
Oral stage (birth to 1 year old)
pleasure flows from the satisfaction of oral drives; sucking chewing eating and biting to five sexual gratifications
Anal stage (1 to 3 year old)
the psychological need to defecate creates tension, which is relieved by defecation
Phallic Stage (3 to 5 year old)
pleasures and problems center on the genital areas. stimulation in the genital areas begins tension, and if the tensions are relieved, pleasure. the problem of this stage is directed to the parent of the opposite sex.
Period of latency (after age 5)
relatively calm, when sexual drives are repressed. play primarily with children of the same sex. ego and superego continues to develop
Genital stage (adolescence)
channeled into adult sexuality. important achievement is balance between love and work
Strengths
stimulate research in areas of moral development: sex typing, identification, parent-child relations attachments, aggression, and self regulation. remain active areas in research today
weaknesses
primary methods (free association, dream analysis, and transference) pose difficulty: training is long and expensive, experimenter error, adult recollections of childhood and recent dreams are unlikely to be unaccurate. uncertain testability of central claims concerning development, overemphasis on childhood sexuality
nature
biological influences of gender
nuture
environmental influences of gender
psychosocial influence
how a person feels about what nature and nuture inpose
sex
refers to the biological traits that distinguish males from females
gender
the sum of our development and life course experience and encompasses a number of characteristics
sexual reproduction
the sexual union that produces offspring
androgen or testosterone
the masculinizing sex hormones
teratogens
substances such as alcohol or cigarettes or environment factor such as lead paint that can cause prenatal damage leading to congenital birth defect or those present at birth
observational learning
can be much broader than mimicking another persons behavior. the child can symbolically construct a new behavior by listening to another person or simply by reading.
self-regulating
observation of which behavior around leads to reinforcement and punishment and use those source of information to make abstract rules, evaluate their performance, develop standards of conduct, set goals, and decide which situations to use the observed behavior.
reciprocal determinism
provides a model of behavior change. three sources of influence: the person, his behavior, and the environment (interact)
person
your genetics, race, ethnicity, age and biological sex
behavior
the choices and decisions you make, your responses and reactions to the incoming information I your daily life
environment
your parents, school, peers, neighborhood, the media, the religious hierarchy, and the political structure of the culture in which you live.
gender socialization
refers to the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being a male or female, or of being feminine or masculine
gender roles
the cultural norms of mail and female attitude behaviors these roles delineate what is considered to be appropriate for people of a particular sex.
masculinity
socially/culturally constructed set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shape manly character or manliness: it prescribes and defines how men should act or feel
new exaggerated version is called cool pose
hegemonic masculinity
every culture has an ideal dominant standard of masculinity to which men are to aim
machismo
the idea that men are superior over women and that men are socially and physically dominating
femininity
qualities behaviors and attitudes that are deemed by a particular culture to be ideal for girls and women
gender stereotypes
long held assumptions for labels about male and female capabilities and limitations
gender polarization or bipolar gender
rather than emphasize the similarities between men and women cultural viewpoints almost always emphasize the difference between men and women
inequality or gaps
societal status, wages, education, employment opportunities and advancement and social and intimate relationships
gender inequality
can be obvious or hidden disparities or discrimination in opportunities or advancements among individuals
sexism
prejudice of discrimination based on biological sex.
belief system basing human worth on the social structure of the differences of sexes.
ideology of male supremacy, superiority, and belief/behaviors that support and sustain ideology
gender identity
our intuitive sense of maleness of females, our internal feelings of what it is to be a man or woman
transgender
refers to people who feel their biologically assigned gender is false or incomplete description of themselves
gender dysmorphia
a gender identity disorder, a mental health classification that describes the longing to live and be accepted as the opposite sex