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Problem Definition Chapter 6
Terms in this set (28)
Good Decisions Start with
a Good Problem Definition
A written expression of the key question(s) that the research user wishes to answer.
The process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives.
process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a problem or choosing from alternative opportunities
-Is it a problem or opportunity?
-How much certainty is there?
Phases of Research Process
Determination of Research Problem-> Development of Appropriate Research Design -> Execution of the Research Design -> Communication of the Results
Defining Problems are easier
-Situation is recurring/routine, A dramatic change occurs, symptoms are isolated, Symptoms are consistent
Defining Problems are Harder
Situation appears new, Changes in Situation is subtle, Symptoms are scattered, symptoms are ambiguous
Good companies make huge research blunders:
Field's / Macy's
Sources of Marketing Problems
- Such as the external environmental influences
- Such as attempting to increase business
Problem Definition Process
Understand the situation-identify the key symptoms, Identify the problems from the symptoms, write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives, determine the unit of analysis, Determine relevant variables, write research questions and/or research hypotheses
Changing managerial decision statements into corresponding research objectives
decisions statements must be translated into research objectives.
Defining research objectives
-Ultimately information gaps become the basis for marketing research activity
-Each objective must be precise, detailed, clear and operational
Determine the Unit of Analysis
Unit of Analysis
-Indicates what or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation.
- Individuals (such as customers, employees, and owners)
- Households (families, extended families, and so forth)
- Organizations (businesses and business units)
- Departments (sales, finance, and so forth)
- Geographical areas
- Objects (products, advertisements, and so forth).
*Multi-level analysis studies variable measured at more than one unit of analysis
What is a variable?
Anything that varies or changes from one instance to another; can exhibit differences in value, usually in magnitude or strength, or in direction.
What is a Constant?
Something that does not change; is not useful in addressing research questions.
Types of Variables
Continuous, Categorical, Dependent, Independent
Can take on a range of quantitative values.
-Indicates membership in some group.
-Also called "classification variable"
A process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
A variable that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.
-How do consumers plan meals?
-What types of meals or food items do families desire?
-How do the preferences of family members influence meal planning and product/brand choice?
-What are the consumer decision making processes with regard to convenience meal items or food products utilized in meal preparation?
Understand consumer processes in planning grocery shopping trips:
-Use of shopping lists, frequency of shopping, attributes of the store that are important to consumers?
Determine how consumers learn about new products
-Role of word-of-mouth, advertising, point-of-purchase information, coupons, etc.
Explore in-store decision processes when evaluating brands or considering alternative products for meal entrees
Identify specific target market groups of customers by demographic, psychographic or market offering interest characteristics
Identify appropriate communication message(s) and medium(s) to effectively position the brand with specific target market(s)
Objective: Identify specific target market groups of customers by demographic, psychographic or market offering interest characteristics
-Hypothesis: Dual income families will display a higher purchase intention for fresh pre-cooked entrees
-Hypothesis: Family income will be negatively related to purchase intention for fresh pre-cooked entrees
-Hypothesis: Families with older head of household will be negatively related to purchase intention for fresh pre-cooked entrees
Marketing Research Model Formulation
-Specify constructs (e.g. satisfaction, brand awareness, customer loyalty, product knowledge)
-Develop operational definition
-Determine the hypothesized or theoretical model
Operational Definition Example
Construct: Price Shopper
Theoretical Definition - Consumers who are sensitive to price and desire to save money. Will typically sacrifice price/value over brand name.
Operational Definitions (survey questions):
-I often compare products by examining unit pricing.
-I normally compare prices when shopping for main meal preparation items.
-I will switch brands if I can save 10% by buying a different brand.
-I typically buy the lowest-priced product when shopping for main meal preparation items.
Request for Proposals (RFPs)
Client organizations publicize RFPs
Research firms develop research proposal to bid on the project
-Specifies research method(s)
-An approach to solve the problem(s) is agreed upon.
-Identifies time frame and budget for completion
-Background Information - specifies events leading up to request for the proposal to be prepared.
-Problem Statement and Research Objectives.
-Research Strategy and Methods - data to be collected, how it will be collected and analyzed. This summarizes steps that will be taken to achieve the research objectives.
-Nature of the Final Report to be submitted - specifies type and nature of report.
-Budget and Schedule.
-Qualifications of Project Consultants and the firm.
Dealing with Your Client
Do not assume the manager has a clear understanding of the problem, but...
- Managers need to play an active role
Keep the client involved throughout the project
- Don't bother them, but keep them engaged
- Read their desired level of involvement
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