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Trojan hero who escaped from the destruction of his city after the Trojan War

Romulus and Remus

descendents of Aeneas, thought themselves to be demigods, brothers raised by a shepard, Romulus killed Remus and became the first king of Rome

Tiber River

river in which Romulus and Remus were thrown by their uncle, gave Rome prime access to the Mediterranean Sea


significant Roman historian


virtuous Roman matron, raped by Sextus (Etruscan) and then committed suicide, sparked rebellion by the Romans to the Etruscans


father of Sextus, Etruscan king

Brutus (first)

Etruscan nobleman, joined Collatinus in a revolt that toppled the monarchy


noble upper class families

How was original Rome ruled?

Power was shared by the Senate, people in the city, people in the army, and elected leaders (Tribunes and Consuls)


commoner of the lower class

Twelve Tables

place where new Plebeian laws were written and displayed

Tribal Assembly

made of Plebeians, became the principal legislative body in 287 BCE, laws were permanent and consistent

Cursus Honorum

career path of a successful public official (Roman men with money)

Patron and Client

relationship between two classes, clients worked for and helped the patrons who supported their clients, was positive and benevolent


large gathering area surrounded by temples and other public buildings, included senate chamber, people's assembly, and speaker's platform called the Rostra

Latin League

Roman and Latin tribes that fought together on the Italian peninsula

Struggle of the Orders

relationship between the plebeians and the patricians, originally a distinction of class and became distinction of birth

Vestal Virgins

6 priestesses who presided over the temple Vesta and kept the sacred fire burning

Soranus and Galen

physicians, gave instructions on how to raise an infant


the other great power in the western Mediterranean, founded from Phoenicia, was a cosmopolitan city


Sicilian city where Rome and Carthage fought, vital because it linked the island and the mainland

Hannibal Barca

Carthaginian general, led attack on Saguntum and began the second Punic War, pushed way back to Italy which made Romans struggle

Battle of Canae

Rome defeated by Hannibal Barca, 30000 Romans died, caused Italians to have a new lazy attitude of defeat

Publius Cornelius Scipio

new Roman general, studied Carthage and brought war back to Spanish lands, then sailed to North Africa and brought the war to Carthage

Battle of Zama

Scipio defeats Hannibal, wins surname Africanus


gladiator, led a slave rebellion of 70000 against regions of Italy, was killed and slave rebellion crushed by Crassus

Barrel vaults

a row of arches spanning a large space


Roman orator, restores grave of Archimedes and exemplifies Roman practical side, influence derived from prose

"No country has ever ben greater or purer than ours..." What does greater or purer mean?

Rome was greater by being superior and better than all else and had a lot of power. They were purer because of their moral virtue and goodness... or they were a homogeneous unified being. Is it possible to be greater AND purer?

What does the story of Cincinnatus tell us about Roman values?

Cincinnatus was a Roman hero. He was a farmer who became a military hero in times of need, but stepped down after victory rather than making himself dictator. He was a patrician who did his own farming. It tells us that Roman values are modest yet heroic.

What does the story of Remus and Romulus tell us about Roman values? What generic mythic elements does it include?

It tells us that

What advantages does Roman geography provide?


What about the Etruscans did the Romans adapt? What did they reject?


Why did some Romans oppose the overthrow of the Etruscan monarchy?


How did the constitution show Aristocratic, Democratic, and Despotic views?

-Senate is made up of the wealthy
-wealth and class was hereditary
-Patron/client system
-Tribal assembly made up of plebeians that could veto the senate
-elected leaders - 10 tribunes by plebeians
-Consuls to enforce the law
-an emergency 6 month term dictator
-mistreatment of certain people

What did the plebeians want and how did they demand it? What did they actually get, specifically?

The plebeians wanted written law, the right to hold office, and they demanded it by going on strike form manual labor (struggle of the orders).

Why were the equestrians so important despite their small numbers?

equestrians were knights on horses, and horses were expensive. therefore, only plebeians could be equestrians, therefore it was made up of the wealthy plebeians. they were powerful so they could rebel, and they lead the charge for plebeian rights.

Did the patron client system help or hurt the lower classes?

it helped the lower classes because...
-the patrons know that they were the basis of their power, so they wouldn't want to jeopardize their relationship
-clients could leave patrons if they were mistreated
-clients depended on patrons for food, representation in the law
-the wealthier the patron was, the better off the client was
it hurt the lower classes because...
-if the patron was unhappy, they could ditch the client
-the client had to aid the patron regardless of their person opinions on them

How did the system (109) prevent accumulation of power by individual or class?


How did Rome govern its Italian conquests?

Rome treated them well so that they wouldn't revolt. They had a citizen army, so everyone would fight. They also adapted and took in their social and political structures. ETC ETC?????

Explain: "Over time, the army began to define the very structure of what was becoming an empire."


Explain: "However, Rome's growing wealth and power clashed with new foes outside the peninsula. These contests would transform the army, the Republic, and the Romans."


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