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91 terms

respiratory system

remember to study pictures in book as well
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respiration
exchange of gas between organism and environment
inhalation
pull air in
exhalation
push air out
air pressure
force exerted by air molecules on walls of container
pressure
force exerted upon area
P=
F/A
pressure and area are______ related
inversely
larger area/volume=
less pressure
forces seek_______
equilibrium
increase air pressure
air moves to an area of lower pressure
atmospheric pressure
pressure in relevant open space
lungs
1) increase size 2) creates negative air pressure in lungs 3)air flows in to equalize pressure 4) air pressure in lungs becomes positive 5) air moves out to equalize pressure
bony thorax
protection
visceral thorax
air passages/lungs
muscles
change size of air containers to create air flow
structures of respiration
bony thorax, visceral thorax, muscles
thorax boundaries
upper, lower, anterior, lateral, posterior
upper boundary
clavicle and 1st rib
lower boundary
12th rib (last)
anterior boundary
ribs 1-12, sternum
lateral boundary
ribs 1-12
posterior boundary
vertebral column
cervical
7, c1-c7, in neck
thoracic
12, T1-T12
lumbar
L1-L5, lower back
sacral
S1-S5, fused into 1 bone
coccygeal
3-4, fused=coccyx(vestigial tail
atlas
c1, supports the skull for head rotation
axis
c2, has spinous process
vertebral foramen
where spinal cord/brain stem pass through
superior articular facet
limits movement, protects spinal cord
dens/odontoid process
spinous process on axis
costal factes
on thoracic vertebrae; articulating surface on body and transverse process
sacrum
remnants of spinous and transverse processes
sacral foramina
provide passage for the sacral nerves
pelvic girdle
girdle connecting lower extremities to axis
ilium
large, wing-like bone
iliac crest
attachment site for the lnguinal ligament
pectoral/shoulder girdle
girdle connecting upper extremities to axis
sternum
midline connector for ribs and clavicle
scapula
winglike bone, supports shoulder
clavicle
collar bone, supports shoulder, articulates with sternum and scapula
head, neck, angle, shaft
parts to the rib
vertebrosternal
true ribs (1-7)
vertebrochondral
false ribs (8-10)
vertebral
floating ribs (11 and 12)
chondral portion of ribs
cartilaginous portion
manubrium sterni, corpus and xiphoid process
3 components of sternum
manubrium sterni
top of sternum, provides attachment for clavicle and the 1st rib
corpus
middle of sternum, articulation points for chondral portions of ribs 2-10
xiphoid process
bottom, swordlike part of sternum,
sternal notch
superior surface of the manubrium sterni
nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx
upper respiratory tract
trachea, bronchi
lower respiratory tract
trachea
16-20 hyaline cartilage c-shaped rings
carina trachea
point of bifurcation into bronchial tubes
main stem, secondary (lobar), tertiary bronchi
bronchial tree
left lung
14 levels (2 lobes)
right lung
28 levels (3 lobes)
terminal bronchioles
final branching tube
alveolar ducts
lead to alveoli
alveoli
region of gas exchange
pneumocytes
alveolar lining
type 1
(flat epithelial) gas exchange
type 2
(cuboidal) produce surfactant
heart, esophagus, nerves, blood vessels
mediastinum
pleural lining
provides a means of smooth contact for rough tissue, attached by surfactant, low surface tension to allow sliding motion
vagus nerve
innervates heart, lungs, diaphragm
visceral pleurae
lungs encased here
parietal pleurae
thoracic linings
mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal, apical
regions of parietal pleurae
dry pleurisy
loss of surfacant
diaphragm
separates thoracic/abdominal cavities, is a thin musculotendinous sheet
esophageal, foramen vena cava, aortic
diaphragmatic hiatuses, main passages in diaphragm
central tendon
intermediate region of the diaphragm
accessory muscles
when anything other than quiet breathing
thoracic, neck, arm/shoulder
accessory muscles of inhalation
external intercostal muscles
when they contract the entire rib cage elevates (11 pairs)
levatores costarum-longis
(lift ribs long) elevate ribs 9-12
levatores costarum-brevis
(short) elevat ribs 1-12
serratus posterior superior
elevate ribs 2-5
sternocleidomastoid
elevate sternum and clavicle, turn head opposite direction
scalenes
elevate ribs 1-2
clavicular breathing
using clavicle muscles to breathe, not efficient
pectoralis muscles
for movement of arm, elevation of rib cage
pectoralis major
elevate sternum
pectoralis minor
elevate ribs
serratus anterior
movement of shoulder, elevate ribs 1-9
trapezius
supports head, neck, vertebral column
innermost intercostals
depress ribs 1-11, pull ribs down
transversus thoracis
depress rib cage