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remember to study pictures in book as well


exchange of gas between organism and environment


pull air in


push air out

air pressure

force exerted by air molecules on walls of container


force exerted upon area

pressure and area are______ related


larger area/volume=

less pressure

forces seek_______


increase air pressure

air moves to an area of lower pressure

atmospheric pressure

pressure in relevant open space


1) increase size 2) creates negative air pressure in lungs 3)air flows in to equalize pressure 4) air pressure in lungs becomes positive 5) air moves out to equalize pressure

bony thorax


visceral thorax

air passages/lungs


change size of air containers to create air flow

structures of respiration

bony thorax, visceral thorax, muscles

thorax boundaries

upper, lower, anterior, lateral, posterior

upper boundary

clavicle and 1st rib

lower boundary

12th rib (last)

anterior boundary

ribs 1-12, sternum

lateral boundary

ribs 1-12

posterior boundary

vertebral column


7, c1-c7, in neck


12, T1-T12


L1-L5, lower back


S1-S5, fused into 1 bone


3-4, fused=coccyx(vestigial tail


c1, supports the skull for head rotation


c2, has spinous process

vertebral foramen

where spinal cord/brain stem pass through

superior articular facet

limits movement, protects spinal cord

dens/odontoid process

spinous process on axis

costal factes

on thoracic vertebrae; articulating surface on body and transverse process


remnants of spinous and transverse processes

sacral foramina

provide passage for the sacral nerves

pelvic girdle

girdle connecting lower extremities to axis


large, wing-like bone

iliac crest

attachment site for the lnguinal ligament

pectoral/shoulder girdle

girdle connecting upper extremities to axis


midline connector for ribs and clavicle


winglike bone, supports shoulder


collar bone, supports shoulder, articulates with sternum and scapula

head, neck, angle, shaft

parts to the rib


true ribs (1-7)


false ribs (8-10)


floating ribs (11 and 12)

chondral portion of ribs

cartilaginous portion

manubrium sterni, corpus and xiphoid process

3 components of sternum

manubrium sterni

top of sternum, provides attachment for clavicle and the 1st rib


middle of sternum, articulation points for chondral portions of ribs 2-10

xiphoid process

bottom, swordlike part of sternum,

sternal notch

superior surface of the manubrium sterni

nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx

upper respiratory tract

trachea, bronchi

lower respiratory tract


16-20 hyaline cartilage c-shaped rings

carina trachea

point of bifurcation into bronchial tubes

main stem, secondary (lobar), tertiary bronchi

bronchial tree

left lung

14 levels (2 lobes)

right lung

28 levels (3 lobes)

terminal bronchioles

final branching tube

alveolar ducts

lead to alveoli


region of gas exchange


alveolar lining

type 1

(flat epithelial) gas exchange

type 2

(cuboidal) produce surfactant

heart, esophagus, nerves, blood vessels


pleural lining

provides a means of smooth contact for rough tissue, attached by surfactant, low surface tension to allow sliding motion

vagus nerve

innervates heart, lungs, diaphragm

visceral pleurae

lungs encased here

parietal pleurae

thoracic linings

mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal, apical

regions of parietal pleurae

dry pleurisy

loss of surfacant


separates thoracic/abdominal cavities, is a thin musculotendinous sheet

esophageal, foramen vena cava, aortic

diaphragmatic hiatuses, main passages in diaphragm

central tendon

intermediate region of the diaphragm

accessory muscles

when anything other than quiet breathing

thoracic, neck, arm/shoulder

accessory muscles of inhalation

external intercostal muscles

when they contract the entire rib cage elevates (11 pairs)

levatores costarum-longis

(lift ribs long) elevate ribs 9-12

levatores costarum-brevis

(short) elevat ribs 1-12

serratus posterior superior

elevate ribs 2-5


elevate sternum and clavicle, turn head opposite direction


elevate ribs 1-2

clavicular breathing

using clavicle muscles to breathe, not efficient

pectoralis muscles

for movement of arm, elevation of rib cage

pectoralis major

elevate sternum

pectoralis minor

elevate ribs

serratus anterior

movement of shoulder, elevate ribs 1-9


supports head, neck, vertebral column

innermost intercostals

depress ribs 1-11, pull ribs down

transversus thoracis

depress rib cage

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