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Units 22-26ish Psych Test study guide
Terms in this set (79)
The study of ___ was central in the early years of psychology and in recent decades, but for quite some time it was displaced by the study of observable ___.
Advances in neuroscience made it possible to relate ___ ___ to various mental states; as a result, psychologists once again affirmed the importance of ___.
_______ is our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Our bodies' internal "clocks" control several ___ ___
The sleep-waking cycle follows a 24-hour clock called the _____ ______
Does body temperature rise or fall as morning approaches?
Does body temperature rise or fall before going to sleep?
When people are at their daily peak in circadian arousal, _______________ is sharpest and __________________ is most accurate.
Our biological clock is reset each day by exposure to ____________ ____________, which triggers proteins in the ____________ of the eyes to signal the brain's ______________________, which causes the __________ gland to increase or decrease its production of ____________.
bright light;retinas;suprachiasmatic nucleus; pineal; melatonin
Under unnatural conditions, will most animals exceed a 24-hour day?
The sleep cycle consists of ________ distinct stages.
The rhythm of sleep cycles was discovered when Aserinsky noticed that, at periodic intervals during the night, the ___________ of a sleeping child moved rapidly. This stage of sleep, during which ________ occur, is called ______________ ___________________.
The relatively slow brain waves of the awake but relaxed state are known as _________________ waves.
During Stage 1 sleep, people often experience ____________ sensations similar to ________________. These sensations may later be incorporated into _________________.
The bursts of brain-wave activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called ______________ __________________.
Large slow brain waves are called __________ waves. They occur first in Stage ________________, and increasingly during Stage __________________ sleep, which are therefore called ______________________-__________________ sleep. Will a person in the latter stage of sleep generally be easy to awaken? _________. It is during this stage that children may wet the bed or begin _________.
During _________ sleep, brain waves become as rapid as those of Stage 1 sleep, heart rate rises and breathing becomes more rapid and irregular, and genital arousal and rapid eye movements occur.
During REM sleep is the motor cortex active or relaxed? _____. During REM sleep, are the muscles active or relaxed? ______. For this reason, REM is often referred to as _______________________ sleep.
The rapid eye movements generally signal the beginning of a _______________, which during REM sleep is often storylike, ___________, and more richly hallucinatory.
The sleep cycle repeats itself about every _________ minutes. As the night progresses, does Stage 4 sleep become longer or briefer? ______. As the night progresses, does REM periods become longer or briefer? _______. Approximately _______ percent of a night's sleep is spent in REM sleep.
90;briefer;longer;20 to 25
Newborns spend nearly ___ of their day asleep, while adults spend no more than ___.
Sleep patterns are influenced by _______, as indicated by the fact that sleep patterns among _________ (fraternal/identical) twins are very similar. Sleep is also influenced by _________ , as indicated by the fact that people now sleep (more/less) than they did a century ago.
Allowed to sleep unhindered, most people will sleep ___ hours a night.
Teenagers typically need ___ hours of sleep but now average nearly ___ hours less sleep than teenagers of 80 years ago. To psychologist William ___, this indicates that the vast majority of students are dangerously sleep-deprived. One effect of this state is to promote weight gain by increasing the hormone ___, decreasing the hormone ___, and increasing the stress hormone ___. Another is that sleep deprivation may suppress the functioning of the body's ___ system and alter metabolic and hormonal functioning in ways that mimic ___ and are conductive to ___ and ___ ___. Another indication of the hazards of this state is that the rate of ___ tends to increase immediately after the spring time change in Canada and the US.
8 or 9;2;Dement;ghrelin; leptin;cortisol;immune;aging;hypertension;memory impairment;accidents
What are the behavioral effects of sleep loss? _________;___________ ___________; ___________; _______________; _______ ________; __________.
sleepiness;impaired creativity;concentration;communication;slowed performance;irritability
Two possible reasons for sleep are to ________ us and to help restore body tissues, especially those of the ____________. Animals with high waking __________ produce an abundance of the chemical __________ ___________ that are toxic to _________. Sleep also facilitates our ________ of the day's experiences and stimulates ________ thinking.
During sleep a growth hormone is released by the ___ gland. Adults spend ___ (more/less) time in deep sleep than children and so release ___ (more/less) growth hormone.
A persistent difficulty in falling or staying asleep is characteristic of ___________. Sleeping pills and alcohol may make the problem worse because they tend to _______ (increase/decrease) REM sleep.
Tips for helping people with insomnia include:
exercising during the day;avoiding caffeine after early afternoon and rich foods before bedtime;sleeping on a regular schedule;relaxing before bedtime
The sleep disorder in which a person experiences uncontrollable sleep attacks is ______________. People with severe cases of this disorder may collapse directly into __________ sleep and experience a loss of ___________ ______________. This disorder may be linked to low levels of the neurotransmitter ________________, which is linked to alertness.
narcolepsy;REM;muscular tension; orexin
Individuals suffering from __________ ____________ stop breathing while sleeping. This disorder is especially prevalent among _____________________ __________________.
sleep apnea;overweight men
The sleep disorder characterized by extreme fright and rapid heartbeat and breathing is called _______________ __________. Unlike nightmares, these episodes usually happen early in the night, during Stage ____________ sleep. The same is true of episodes of _____________ and ___________, problems that ___________ (run/do not run) in families. These sleep episodes are most likely to be experienced by ____________ (young children/adolescents/older adults), in whom this stage tends to be the ____________ and _____________.
night terrors;4;sleepwalking;sleeptalking;run;young children;lengthiest;deepest
Dreams experienced during ___ sleep are vivid, emotional, and bizarre.
For both men and women, 8 in 10 dreams are marked by ______ (positive/negative) emotions, such as fears of being ___________________________.
Freud referred to the actual content of a dream as its ________ content. Freud believed that this is a censored, symbolic version of the true meaning, or __________ __________, of the dream,
According to Freud, most of the dreams of adults reflect _______ wishes and are the key to understanding inner _______. To Freud, dreams serve as a psychic ________________ _____________ that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings.
Researchers who believe that dreams serve an ________________-processing function receive support from the fact that REM sleep facilitates _________.
Brain scans confirm the link between ___ sleep and ___.
Other theories propose that dreaming serves some ________ function, for example, that REM sleep provides the brain with needed _______. Such an explanation is supported by the fact that _________ (infants/adults) spend the most time in REM sleep.
Still other theories propose that dreams are elicited by random bursts of ___ activity originating in lower regions of the brain, such as the ___. According to the ___-___ theory, dreams are the brains's attempt to make sense of this activity. The bursts are believed to be given their emotional tone by the brain's ___ system. PET scans of sleeping people reveal increased activity in the brain's ___system, especially the ___. Other theorists see dreams as a natural part of brain ___ and ___ development.
Researchers agree that we (need/do not need) _______ REM sleep. After being deprived of REM sleep, a person spends more time in REM sleep; this is the _____________ __________ effect.
need; REM rebound effect
REM sleep (does/does not) _______ occur in other mammals. Animals such as fish, whose behavior is less influenced by learning, (do/do not) _________ dream. This finding supports the _____________-_______ theory of dreaming.
Hypnosis is a ___ ___ in which a hypnotist suggests that a subject will experience certain feelings or thoughts, for example.
Most people are (some-what/not at all) __________ hypnotically suggestible.
People who are most susceptible to hypnosis frequently become _____ (highly/not at all) absorbed in _______ activities. They also tend to have __________ (rich/lacking) fantasy lives.
The idea that we can relive childhood experiences through hypnosis--referred to as _________________ _________ --has not been supported by research.
Research studies show that "hypnotically refreshed" memories combine ___________ with ____________.
An _ person in a legitimate _ can induce people - hypnotized or not - to perform some unlikely acts.
Hypnotherapists have helped some people alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders through the use of _ suggestions.
Hypnosis (is/is not) ____ especially helpful for the treatment of obesity. It (is/is not) __________ useful in treating smoking, drug, and alcohol addictions.
Hypnosis (can/cannot) ____________ relieve pain
In surgical experiments, hypnotized patients have required less __, have recovered ___, and have left the hospital ___ than unhypnotized controls.
Skeptics believe that hypnosis may reflect the workings of ___ ___. These findings provide support for the ___ ___ theory of hypnosis.
normal consciousness;social influence
Hilgard has advanced the idea that during hypnosis there is a ___, or split, between different levels of consciousness. For example, he believes that there is a split between the ___ and ___ aspects of pain. Hypnotic pain relief may also be due to the selective ___, that is, to the person's focusing on stimuli other than pain.
drugs that alter moods, thoughts, and sense perceptions including vision, hearing, smell, and touch are called _________ drugs
Drug users who require increasing doses to experience a drug's effects have developed ___ for the drug. The user's brain counteracts the disruption to its normal functioning; thus, the user experiences ___.
After ceasing to use a drug, a person who experiences ___ symptoms has developed a physical ___. Regular use of a drug to relieve stress is an example of a ___ dependence. A person who has a compulsive craving for a substance despite adverse consequences is ___ to that substance.
The three misconceptions about addictions are...
Taking a psychoactive drug automatically leads to addiction;a person cannot overcome an addiction without professional help;the addiction-as-a-disease-needing-treatment model is applicable to a broad spectrum of pleasure-seeking behaviors
The three broad categories of drugs discussed in the text include ________________, which tend to slow body functions; ___________________. which speed body functions; and _________________, which alter perception. These drugs all work by mimicking, stimulating, or inhibiting the activity of the brain's ________. Psychologically, our culturally influenced ___________ also play a role.
Depressants ___ nervous system activity and ___ body function. Low doses of alcohol, which is classified as a ___, slow the activity of the ___ nervous system.
Alcohol may make a person more _, more _, or more _ daring. Alcohol affects memory by interfering with the process of transferring experiences into _ memory. Also, blackouts after drinking result from alcohols suppression of _.
Excessive use of alcohol can also affect cognition by _______ the brain. especially in (men/women) _________. Alcohol also reduces __________ and focuses one's attention on the __________ situation and away from __________ consequences, thus lessening ___________ ______________.
Tranquilizers, which are also known as ___, have effects similar to those of alcohol.
Opium, morphine, and heroin all (excite/depress) ________ neural functioning. Together, these drugs are called the _____________. When they are present, the brain eventually stops producing __________.
The most widely used stimulants are __________, _______, the _______, __________, ______, and _________________. Stimulants (are/are not) addictive.
Methamphetamine triggers the release of the neurotransmitter _________, which stimulates brain cells that enhance _________ and __________.
Eliminating ___ would increase life expectancy more than any other preventive measure. Smoking usually begins during ___ ___. Smokers (do/do not) ___ become dependent on ___, and they (do/do not) ___ develop tolerance to the drug. Quitting causes ___-___ symptoms that include _______________.
smoking;early adolescence;do;nicotine;do;withdrawal,craving,insomnia,anxiety, and irritability.
Nicotine quickly triggers the release of ___ and ___, two neurotransmitters that diminish ___ and boost ___ and ___ ___. Nicotine also stimulates the ___ ___ system to release ____ and ___, neurotransmitters that calm and reduce sensitivity to ___.
epinephrine;norepinephrine;appetite;alertness;mental efficiency;central nervous;dopamine;opioids;anxiety;pain
Cocaine and crack deplete the brain's supply of the neurotransmitters ___, ___, and ____ and result in depression as the drugs' effects wear off. They do this by blocking the ___ of the neurotransmitters, which remain in the nerve cells' ___.
Cocaine's psychological effects depend not only on dosage and form but also on ___, ___, and the ___.
The drug ________, or MDMA, is both a __________ and a _____________ ________________. This drug triggers the release of the neurotransmitters ________ and ___________ and blocks the reabsorption of __________. Among the adverse effeccts of this drug are disruption of the body's ________ clock, suppression of the ________________ __________________. and impaired ___________________ and other __________________ functions.
Ecstasy;stimulant;mild hallucinogen;dopamine;serotonin;circadian;immune system;memory;cognitive
Hallucinogens are also referred to as __________. Two common synthetic hallucinogens are __________ and LSD, which is chemically similar to a subtype of the neurotransmitter ________________. LSD works by _____________ the actions of this neurotransmitter.
The reports of people who have had near-death experiences are very similar to the ____________ reported by drug users. These experiences may be the result of a deficient supply of _____ or other insults to the brain.
The active ingredient in marijuana is abbreviated _____________.
All psychoactive drugs trigger _______, which helps explain both _________and ________-.
Drug use by North American Youth (increased/declined) ___ during the 1970s, then declined until the early 1990s due to increased ____ ____ and efforts by the media to deglamorize drug use.
Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if they had a(n) (adoptive/biological) _________ parent with a history of alcohol dependence. Also having an ___________ _____________ with alcohol dependence increases the risk of dependence. Boys who at age 6 are (more/less) ___________ excitable are more likely as teens to smoke, drink, and use other drugs. Genes that are more common among people predisposed to alcohol dependence may cause deficiencies in the brain's _________ _________ system.
biological;identical twin;more;dopamine reward
Among teenagers, drug use (varies/is about the same) __________ across __________ and _________ groups.
African-American high school seniors report the (highest/lowest) _______ rates of drug use. A major social influence on drug use is the ____ culture.
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