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a paradox reduced to two words used for effect to emphasize contrasts


a mode of expression,through words or events, conveying a reality different from and usually opposite to appearance or expression


form of extended metaphor in which objects and persons in a narrative are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself


a casual and brief reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event


something that is itself and yet also represents something else, like an idea


the writer's attitude toward his readers and his subject


manner of writing that mixes a critical attitude with wit and humor in an effort to improve mankind and human institutions


the recurrence of initial consonant sounds


metaphorical of an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes


the use of similar vowel sounds repeated in a successive or proximate words containing different consonants


substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one


expressing an idea with less emphasis or in a lesser degree than is the actual one


exaggeration used for emphasis, used to heighten effect, or to create a humorous perception


the direct address of a person or personified thing, either present or absent


a comparison which imaginatively identifies one thing with another dissimilar thing, invoked by the "to be" verb


use of words which in their pronunciation suggests their meaning or sound


a direct, expressed comparison using "like" or "as" between two things essentially unlike each other, but resembling each other in a way

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