32 terms

The Progressive Era

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Progressivism
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Reforms
changes to bring about improvement
Populist Movement
Political movement begun by farmers and members of labor unions in the late 1800's seeking to limit the power of big businesses and get the government to regulate banks, railroads, and improve working conditions.
agrarian
concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
urban
in, relating to, or characteristic of a city or town.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Industrialization
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Science
organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world
Technology
The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
Big Business
Term used to describe the corporations and monopolies since the industrial revolution of the late 1800s.
Monopoly
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
Progressive Movement Goals
- Protect social welfare
- Promoting moral improvement
- Creating economic reform
- Fostering efficiency
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
Union Movement
in the 1800's working people became much more involved in politics. To create reforms workers joined together in voluntary associations called unions. Factory workers were faced with painfully long hours, and awful working conditions. They always had the threat of being laid off standing over them. They created a union to work to gather against the authorities.
Socialism
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Muckrakers
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Socialists Party
Political party formed in 1901 and committed to socialism- that is, government ownership of most industries.
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Lincoln Steffens
Early muckraker who exposed the political corruption in many American cities. Wrote the Shame of the Cities.
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Lewis Hine
Photographer who used his pictures to draw attention to social problems such as child labor and the poor living conditions of immigrants in New York City.
Wobblies (IWW)
This radical union aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
AFL
American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Writer, demonstrating a gift for expressing complex ideas in simple terms. In 1879, he published Progress and Poverty, in which he pointed out that the wealthy extracted huge profits from the ownership of land. Land existed in a fixed amount and became more valuable as populations increased and as cities developed. Society, rather than the landlord, was responsible for the increase in value; George termed this profit "unearned increment." He advocated the enactment of a single tax system that would transfer unearned increment to the government to fund a variety of social programs. All other forms of taxation could be abolished and monopolies and poverty would disappear. George's ideas were immensely popular and single tax societies were formed throughout the nation. Tax reform and the curbing of the power of the idle rich became popular causes.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
W.E.B. DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
Republican

Domestic Affairs:
Trustbusting
Personal disgression
Square Deal- fair for all sides
New Nationalism 1912
Conservation
"Bully Pulpit"-great sway among public
Meat Inspection Act
The Jungle, Sinclair

Foreign Affairs:
Taft as Governor of Philippines
Panama Canal
Roosevelt Corollary
Big Stick Diplomacy
Peacemaking
Russo-Japanese War
Gentleman's Ag.
France-Germany dispute over Morocco
Great White Fleet
Yellow Journalism
type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.