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CIT 115 Quiz 1
Terms in this set (26)
Performs a specific action such as adding two numbers. Third step in machine cycle.
Considered storage that is part of the CPU and has two types.
A type of storage that uses solid-state circuitry.
Step that performs logic and mathematical calculations.
Step that determines what the program is telling the computer what to do. Second step in machine cycle.
Part of operating system that allows the user to communicate with the computer system.
Any data the the computer collects from the outside world.
Manages the machine cycle of the CPU.
An optical storage device that you can write to and read to many times.
A type of storage device that uses a laser to read and write data.
Where Computer system retains software and data for future use.
The "brains" of the computer
The four-step process of fetch, decode, execute, and store.
Type of memory where the contents of this are not erased when the computer is turned off.
Step that retrieves program instruction from memory. First step in machine cycle.
The equivalent of eight binary digits
Information that is sent from the computer to the outside world.
Type of storage that consists of several fixed, rapidly rotating platters
The computer's main temporary storage area which is volatile in nature.
The most common method for data entry
a precise, step-by-step set of instructions for solving a task.
It doesn't solve a task.
It gives you a series of steps that, if executed correctly, will result in a solution to a task.
when followed will produce the desired result.
unambiguous - the instruction can only be interpreted in one unique way
executable - the person or device executing the instruction must know how to accomplish the instruction without any extra information.
ordered - the steps of an algorithm must be ordered in a proper sequence to correctly accomplish the task.
ability to understand, execute, evaluate, and create algorithms.
Why are algorithms important?
An algorithm documents the "how to" for accomplishing a particular task.
It can be used to accomplish not only a single task but a whole group of related tasks.
The existence of an algorithm means that the task can potentially be automated .
The automation of redundant, tedious, or dangerous tasks frees people from having to perform these boring, time-consuming, or potentially lethal tasks.
The automation of some tasks makes new things possible
How to become an Algorithmic Thinker
Algorithmic thinking requires patience
Each instruction must be executed in its correct sequence without skipping ahead or "glossing over" some of the instructions.
Algorithmic thinking requires diligence and perseverance
It is often tedious to follow the steps of a complex algorithm
people sometimes fail to complete an algorithm because they simply "give up."
Algorithmic thinking also requires the ability to evaluate algorithms.
This involves determining if an algorithm really does solve a given task.
You have to determine that it is correct and complete.
Algorithmic thinking includes the ability to create new algorithms.
The most challenging aspect of algorithmic thinking
Given a task, can you create a series of precise, step-by-step instructions that always solves the task correctly?
As the tasks become more complex, the task to create an algorithm becomes more difficult.
You must always create the algorithm with the "target executer" in mind.
Properties of Algorithms
For any given, non-trivial task (or set of related tasks), there are many possible algorithms for accomplishing the task.
There is more than one correct answer
An algorithm does not encode the underlying theory behind the instruction steps.
Complex algorithms often have associated documentation that provides detailed explanations of how they work.
Some algorithms are more efficient than other algorithms.
The execution of an algorithm requires some amount of time. If an algorithm is used often, its efficiency becomes an issue
Computer programs that are used over many years typically must be modified over time to adapt to changes in task requirements.
They require "maintenance" to keep them current with changes in task requirements.
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