AP Comparative Government: Nigeria
Terms in this set (104)
Sani Abacha (1993-1998)
The corruption associated with his rule alienated citizens and caused people to question the validity of taxes.
Vice President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007. He is a Muslim native of Adamawa State, and was an influential member of the ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP) until 2006 when he switched affiliation to the Action Congress party. President Obasanjo attempted to keep him from running for president in 2007, but failed.
African National Congress (ANC)
A political party in Nigeria formed from several minority groups in 2006. The party ran Atiku Abubakar as its presidential candidate in 2007.
Famous for his "custodial theory" of government., Military ruler of Nigeria from 1985 to 1993 who sought to establish the failed third republic.
The first military ruler, Agiyi Ironsi, justified his authority by announcing his intention to end violence and stop political corruption. He was killed in a coup by a second general, but the coup sparked the Igbo to fight for independence of their land, called Biafra.
The Biafran Civil War
1967-1970 political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the Southeastern (Igbo Christian) provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. Bloody civil war in which Gowon won.
Lost to Goodluck Jonathan in the elections of 2011, won the election of 2015. Part of the All Progressives Congress
Formal interest groups and informal voluntary associations have actively sought to influence political decisions. Some encourage Nigerian unity and others create centrifugal influences, the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) does both. Was founded by Ken Saro-Wiwa
Has eluded Nigeria due to how often the rules are changed
An arrangement in which government officials interact with people/groups outside the government before they set policy.
Conflictual political culture
Citizens are sharply divided on both the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Ex. Christianity, individualism
Promises that power will be shared, and that all people in all parts of the country will be fairly represented. Recognises all ethnicities, religions, and regions and takes their needs into account.
The dominant ethnic group in Northwest Nigeria, predominantly Muslim.
All Yoruba chiefs traced their descent to this first ruler. According to legend, the creator sent this first ruler down to earth where he founded the first Yoruba state.
The dominant ethnic group in Southeast Nigeria, primarily Roman Catholic, with some Protestant Christians.
Colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status. Practiced in south Nigeria
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy
INEC (Independent National Election Commission)
The electoral body set up in 1998 to oversee elections in Nigeria. In order to run candidates for the legislative and presidential elections of 1999, a party had to qualify by earning at least 5% of the votes in 2/3 of the states in the December 1998 local elections.
The Islamic holy war through which the Fulani came to northern Nigeria.
President from 2010 to 2015
Northeastern Nigerian group; a smaller, primarily Muslim group
Kinship based politics
Politics in pre-colonial times, where political organizations didn't go farther than the local level. Villages were composed of extended families, which contrasted with the larger states in the north.
Senior government officials are supported by a broader base of loyal junior officials.
Military in barracks
The type of military that fulfills traditional duties of the military and in which its leaders have often been critical of military control of political power.
Military in Government
Military in Nigeria that has a strong tradition of involvement; the military is a strong force behind policy-making in Nigeria.
The bicameral legislature of Nigeria's presidential system that includes the Senate and House of Representatives.
How the country should be governed, or even if Nigeria should remain as one nation.
Nonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief. Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999).
A former military general that won the 1999 and 2003 elections as part of the PDP.
The powerful slave trading empire of the Yoruba ethnic group in west and north central Nigeria
Corporations owned by the state and designated to provide commercial and social welfare services.
A system in which the president is the head of an intricate patron-client system and dispenses government jobs and resources as rewards to supporters.
Patron-clientelism in Nigerian politics; an extremely personalized system of rule in which all public offices are treated as personal fiefdoms; the practice of exchanging political and economic favors among patrons and clients.
People's Democratic Party (PDP)
A political party in Nigeria that won the 1999, 2003, and 2007 elections and gained the overwhelming majority in the National Assembly along with many candidates of the PDP were elected as governors. Obasanjo, Umaru, and Goodluck Jonathan belonged to this party.
Vote in which the winner needs to win more votes than any other candidate
A process in which political leaders essentially rent out parts of the state to their patrons, who as a result control public goods that would otherwise be distributed in a nonpolitical manner
The distribution of a portion of federal tax revenues to state and local governments.
Rule of law
Principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Nigerian activist executed by the military government in 1996. A dissident who founded the MOSOP, which has worked to apply national laws to secure financial benefits for the Ogoni in the Niger Delta and to hold foreign-operate oil companies to environment standards.
Islamic law that is considered to be the foundation of all Islamic civilization. It is meant to embody a vision of community in which all Muslims are brothers and sisters and subscribe to the same moral values.
A Muslim State that encompassed the entire northwest, north, mid section, and part of the northeast of Nigeria. It was established in 1808 by the Fulani.
A political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group
Structural Adjustment Program
An economic program developed by the Babangida regime in 1984 that sought to restructure and diversify the Nigerian economy so that it could decrease its dependence on oil. The government also promised to reduce government spending and to privatize its parastatals.
A private organization that compiles statistics about corruption in countries around the world.
Called for by the Igbo Youth movement. Promotes accelerated economic development, it unifies and binds people together, it triggers intellectual dialogue and provokes a healthy rivalry in revenue generation. These laudable goals are only achieved where the federating units are allowed free access in decision making and inputs into governance.
The candidate from the PDP who won in the election of 2007. He has a non-military background and won amidst widespread fraud.
The dominant ethnic group in Southwest Nigeria. They are about 40% Muslim, 40% Christian, and 20% indigenous religions.
Which countries have economies that are almost completely dependant on oil?
Nigeria, Iran, Mexico
Nigeria's high Gini index indicates
A large gap between the rich and poor
In comparison to Britain and Russia, the literacy rates in Iran and Nigeria
Show a larger gap between literacy rates for men and women
The requirement that a president must receive at least 25% of the vote in 2/3 of the state is intended to insure
A purely regional candidate cannot win the presidency.
The loyalty pyramid, prebendalism, and patrimonialism are all Nigerian versions of
One reason that a parliamentary-style government failed in Nigeria was that it was difficult to
Identify a major party
One of the most important social cleavages in
The main goals of structural adjustment programs has been
Reduce Nigeria's dependence on oil
Low CPI scores are almost certainly impacted by a history of
In comparison to the Iranian Constitution of 1979, the 1999 Nigerian Constitution
Is a much less important source of political authority
What is a major societal problem for Nigeria?
A large gap between the rich and poor
The institution in Nigeria created to give equal representation to the states is
When Muhammadu Buhari replaced Goodluck Jonathan as president in 2015, it was the first time in Nigeria since independence that a
President running for re-election was not elected
What is the most important social cleavage in Nigeria?
The Mexican and Nigerian political systems both currently have
What is the issue with answering the national question
Lack of constitutionalism
Nigeria's move of their capital city from Lagos to Abuja was an attempt to
Unify a multi-ethnic state
Patron-clientelism is almost always accompanied by
One effect of the British introduction of western-style education to Nigeria was to
Deepen the rift between north and south
The relationship between the government and para-statals in Nigeria is an example of
Like iran, Nigeria is a
An important trend in the organization of Nigerian political parties since 1999 is that they have
Tended to lose their regional bases
Signs of democratization in Nigeria
Checks and balances, independent court decisions, revival of civil society
Babangida's custodial theory revolved around
The military's role of providing stability and then transitioning to democracy
Between 1966 and 1999, decisions of the judiciary have been most often undermined by
Military decrees and quasi-judicial tribunals
Judges appointed to the bench due to their personal presidential relationships
Decrease rule of law
Judicial review by the Supreme Court in Nigeria
Usually occurs only in theory
Mass political culture in Nigeria is characterized by
Social class consciousness, geographic isolation of ethnic groups, mutually reinforcing ethnic and religious groups
The lack of unity and support for the regime and, at times, for the very existence of Nigeria have plagued it since independence.
Practiced in the north
In Nigeria and elsewhere, the notion that colonial powers had to rule on their own and through local leaders at the same time.
Reinforced ethnicity as the most disruptive force in Nigerian political life
A government policy that uses trade restrictions and subsidies to encourage domestic production of manufactured goods
A condition in which one party's benefit or gains requires comparable losses by another party
Retired Nigerian Army general and former President of Nigeria, the only Nigerian leader to voluntarily hand power to a democratically-elected government
Oppressive Nigerian military dictator from 1993 to 1998 who came to power in a military coup
President of Nigeria; overthrown in 1983 coup.
Military ruler of Nigeria from 1985 to 1993 who sought to establish the failed Third Republic
The apparent winner of the 1993 Nigerian presidential election of 1993; he died in prison of unexplained causes five years later.
Noted Nigerian playwright and environmental activist, executed in 1995 for his defense of the land and peoples of the Niger Delta
Interim military leader of Nigeria in 1998
Seized power in Nigeria after Abacha and set free elections for Nigeria in 1999.
He led Nigerians to a well-organized and effective nationalist opposition. He organized the Nigerian National Democratic Party and pushed for more Nigerian participation.
The leading Yoruba politician in post-independence Nigeria, leader of colonial opposition
One of the leaders of early independent Nigeria; killed in the first coup
A leading Igbo politician and head of Biafra during the civil war in Nigeria in the late 1960s
(NEPU) No support outside of his ethnic group
One of the leaders of early independent Nigeria; killed in the first coup
The military ruler of Nigeria during the Biafran war, killed by northern soldiers
The Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
The First Republic
Nigerian parliamentary democratic regime that followed independence (1960-66). Included Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Aminu Kano, and Ahmadu Bello.
Military Rule I (1966-1979)
Aguiyi Ironsi took control of the military, moved quickly against corrupt officials and promised a rapid return to civilian rule. Established Supreme Military Command, May 1966, he announced palns for a centralized constitution, thousands of Igbos were killed. Obasanjo took over years later, then gracefully gave up power in 1979.
The Second Republic
Parliamentary systems were rejected in favor of a presidential system. FEDECO had to licence all parties, many couldn't meet requirements. Oil prices collapsed, after a corrupt election the military stepped in once again.
Military rule II
A military rule that lasted from 1983 until 1999. General Muhammed Buhari seized power in 1983. He soon became an unpopular leader and was overthrown by Ibrahim Babingida in 1985. Babingida, after stalling a transition to civilian rule for years, annulled the results of a presidential election in 1993 that would have elected Mshood Abiolao, a Yoruba businessman. He was soon forced to resign and give power to a weak and short lived civilian government.
Lasted 83 day
Military Rule III
1966 Igbo officers seized power, Abacha purged the cabinet and fired heads of the trade unions, army, navy. Dies suddenly, Abubakar succeeded him. Fell in 1999
Fourth Republic (1999-present)
President Obasanjo hope to replace old government.