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Barron's Chapter 12 (Biological Diversity) Bio SAT
Terms in this set (53)
_____________ is a system by which we name and classify all organisms, living and extinct.
_______________, which was developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century, got its name because every organism has a two-part name.
Linnaeus classified every organism into a hierarchy of _____________, or levels of organization.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Levels of classification
_______________ are microorganisms that live in extreme environments and that seemed so different from bacteria that they had to be placed into a seperate kingdom.
Currently, use a system called the _______________, which is based on DNA analysis and is more accurate describing the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea
The three domains
-All are single-celled prokaryotes with no internal membranes (no nucleus, mitochondria, or chloroplasts)
-Some are anaerobes; some are aerobes
-Bacteria play a vital role in the ecosystem as decomposers that recycle dead organic matter
-Many are pathogens; disease causing
-Bacteria play a vital role in genetic engineering. The bacteria from the human intestine, Escherichia coli, are used to manufacture human insulin
-Some bacteria carry out conjugation, a primitive form of sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic material
-Bacteria have thick, rigid cell wall
-Some are autotrophic (blue-green algae); some are hetertrophic
-Has no introns (noncoding regions within DNA)
-Member species correspond roughly to the old grouping Eubacteria and include green-blue algae, bacteria like E. coli that live in the human intestine, those that cause disease like Clostridium botulinum and Streptococcus, and those necessary in the nitrogen cycle
-Prokaryotic (no internal membranes)
-Includes extremophiles such as methanogens, halophines and thermohiles
-Introns are present in some genes
_______________ obtain energy in a unique way by producing methane from hydrogen
______________ thrive in environments with high salt concentrations like Utah's Great Salt Lake
______________ thrive in very high temperatures, like in hot springs or in deep-sea hydrothermal vents
-All organisms have a nucleus and internal organelles
-Includes the four remaining kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
4 kingdoms of eukarya
-This kingdom includes the widest variety of organisms, but all are eukaryotes
-Most are single-celled but many are primitive multicelled organisms
-Includes hetertrophs (like ameobas and paramecia) and autotrophs (like euglenas, which have a red eyespot to locate light and chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis)
-Protista move by various means: amoeba uses pseudopods; paramecium uses cilia; euglena uses a flagellum
-Protista includes organisms that do not fit into the fungi or plant kingdoms, such as seaweeds and slime molds
-Some protista (protista and algae) sometimes carry out conjugation (sexual reproduction where they exchange genetic material)
-Some cause serious diseases like amoebic dysentry and malaria
-All are heterotrophic eukaryotes
-They can be either unicellular or multicellular
-Fungi carry out extracellular design by secreting hydrolytic enzymes outside the body. After digestion, the building blocks of nutrients are absorbed into the body of the fungus by diffusion
-They are important in the ecosystem as decomposers
-Fungi are saprobes, organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter. As such, they recycle nutrients in an ecosystem
-Their cell walls are made of chitin
-Certain fungi combine with algae in a mutualistic, symbiotic relationship forming various lichens, which are photosynthetic. Lichens are often the pioneer organisms, the first to colonize a barren environment in an ecological succession
-They reproduce asexually by budding (yeast), spore formation (bread mold), or fragmentation whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals
-They also reproduce sexually
-Ex: Yeast, mold, mushrooms, and the fungus that causes athlete's foot
-All are multi-cellular, nonmotile, autotrophic eukaryotes
-Their cell walls are made of cellulose
-Plants carry out photosynthesis using chlorophyll a and b
-Plants store their carbohydrates as starch
-They reproduce asexually by alternating between gamophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) generations (a process known as alternation of generations)
-Some plants have vascular tissue (tracheophytes), and some have no vascular tissue (bryophytes)
-Ex: moses, ferns, cone-bearing and flowering plants
-All are heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes
-Most are motile, can move on their own
-Most animals reproduce sexually with a dominant diploid (2n) stage
-In most species, a small flagellated sperm fertilizes a larger, non motile egg
-The traditional way of classifying animals is primarily based on anatomical features (homologous structures) and embryonic development
-They are grouped in 35 phyla, but we commonly discuss 9: porifera, cnidarians, platyhelminthes, nematodes, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates
Specialization of tissues, germ layers, body symmetry, development of a head end and body cavity formation
5 Evolutionary Trends
The _______ is the basic unit of all forms of life.
A ___________ is a group of similar cells that perform one particular function.
An ___________ is a group of tissues that work together to preform related functions.
______________ have organs but no organ systems.
______________ are the main three layers that form various tissues and organs of the body during early in embryonic development: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
The _______________, or the outermost layer, becomes the skin and nervous system, including the nerve cord and brain.
The ______________, the innermost layer, becomes the viscera (guts) or the digestive system,
The ______________, middle layer, becomes the blood, muscles, and bones.
Porifera and Cnidarians
Examples of animals with only two cell layers:
In Cnidarians and Porifera, their ectoderm and endoderm are glued together by the ____________ which holds the layers together.
The more complex animal phyla are ______________, having three true cell layers.
_______________ is about a central axis
_______________ is when the body is organized along a longitudinal axis with right and left sides that mirror each other
_______________, or development of a head, is critical to enabling animals to move faster and flee or to capture prey successfully. Simple animals such as sponges and cnidarians do not have a head end. More sophisticated animals starting with a flatworm do.
The __________ is defined as a fluid-filled body cavity that is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue. Shows evolution because provides space for elaborate organ system.
Primitive animals, like flatworms, do not have coelom and are known as _____________. They have flat bodies and all cells are in direct contract with their watery environment.
Nematodes or roundworms are called ________________.
Nematodes or roundworms are called psuedocoelomates; they have a fluid-filled tube between the endoderm and the mesoderm that acts as a _____________________ to support the animal.
_________________ are animals with a coelom and are the most complex in the kingdom.
Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Chordata
Phylas which are coelomates:
Porifera, Cnidarians, Platyhelminthes, Nematodes, Annelids, Mollusks, Arthropods, Echinoderms, Chordates
Order of complexity of the nine common phylas: (least-> most)
-Have no nerve or muscle tissue, are sessile- do not move
-Filter nutrients from water drawn into a central cavity
-Consist of two cell layers only: ectoderm and endoderm connected by noncellular mesoglea
-Have specialized cells but no true tissues or organs, each cell carries out many functions
-Evolved from colonial organisms; if you squeeze a sponge through fine cheesecloth, it will separate into individual cells that will spontaneously re-aggregate into a sponge
-Reproduce asexually through fragmentation
-Also reproduce easily, are hermaphrodites
Cnidarians (hydra and jellyfish)
-Body plan is the polyp (vase shape), which is mostly sessile, or medusa (upside-down bowl shape), which is mostly motile
-Life cycle- come go through a planula larva (free-swimming) stage then go through two reproductive stages: asexually reproducing (polyp) and sexually reproducing (medusa)
-Two cell layers only: ectoderm+ endoderm connected by mesoglea
-Have a gastrovascular cavity extracellular digestion occurs
-Carry out intracellular digestion inside body cells in lysosmes
-No transport system, because all cells are in direct contact with the environment
-All members have stinging cells-enidocytes- containing stingers, which are called nematocysts
Platyhelminthes (flatworms including tapeworms)
-They are the simplest animals with bilateral symmetry, an anterior end and three distinct cell layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm
-The digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion and egestion so food cannot be processed continuously
-They have a solid body an have no room for true digestive or respiratory systems to circulate food or oxygen. The body instead is so flat and thin that many body cells can exchange nutrients and wastes by diffusion within the environment
-Unsegmented worms with bilateral symmetry but little sensory apparatus
-Many are parasitic
-One species, C. elegans, is commonly used an an animal model for research in genes and embryonic development
Annelids (segmented worms like earthworms, leeches)
-Bilateral symmetry with little sensory apparatus
-Digestive tract is a tube within-a-tube consisting of crop, gizzard and intestine
-Nephridia for excretion of the nitrogen waste, urea fifie
-Closed circulatory system- heart consists of five pairs of aortic arches
-Blood contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen
-Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through moist skin
Mollusks (squids, octopuses, slugs, clams, snails)
-Have soft body often protected by a hard calcium-containing shell
-Open circulatory system with blood-filled spaces called hemocoels or sinuses
-Have bilateral symmetry with three distinct body zones:
1) Head-foot, which contains both sensory and motor organs
2) Visceral mass, which contains the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
3) Mantle, a specialized tissue that surrounds the visceral mass and secreted the shell
-Radula, a movable, tooth-bearing structure, acts like a tongue
-Most have gills and nephridia
Arthropods (insecta (grasshopper), crustacea (shrimp, crab), arachnida (spider))
-Segmented into head, thorax, abdomen
-More sensory apparatus than in annelids, giving them more speed and freedom of movement
-Chitinous exoskeleton protects the animal and aids in movement
-Open circulatory system with a tubular heart and hemocoels, sinuses
-Malpighian tubules for removal of nitrogenous wastes, uric acid
-Air ducts called trachea bring air from the environment into hemocoels
Echinoderms (sea stars and sea urchins)
-Most are sessile or slow moving
-They have bilateral symmetry as an embryo but revert to the primitive radial symmetry as an adult. The radial anatomy of the adult is an adaptation to a sedentry lifestyle
-Their water vascular system creates hydrostatic support for the tube feet, the locomotive structures
-Echinoderms reproduce by sexual reproduction with external fertilization
-They can also reproduce by fragmentation and regeneration. Any piece of a sea star that contains part of the central canal will form a completely new organism
-Sea stars have an endoskeleton consisting of calcium plates. An endoskeleton grows with the body. In contrast, an exoskeleton does not and must be shed periodically
Chordates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals)
-Chordates have a notochord, a rod that extends the length of the body and serves as a flexible axis
-They have a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-The tail aids in movement and balance. The coccyx bone in humans is a vestige of a tail.
-Birds and mammals are homeotherms- they maintain a consistent body temp. All other chordates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) are cold-blooded although some reptiles are endotherms (heat from within) and are able tor aise their body temp
Characteristics of Mammals
-Mammals belong to the phylum Chordata
-Mothers nourish their babies with milk from mammary glands
-They have hair/fur
-Mammals are endotherms (warm-blooded)
-Most are placental mammals (eutherians)- the embryo develops internally in the uterus connected to the mother by a placenta, where nutrients diffuse from mother to embryo
-Some, the marsupials, including kangaroos, are born very early in embryonic development.
-Monotremes, egg-laying mammals, like the duck-billed platypus and the spiny anteater, derive nutrients from a shelled egg
Characteristics of Primates
-Humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, gibbons and old and new world monkeys
-Have dexterous hands and opposable thumbs
-Hands and fingers have many nerve endings and therefore are sensitive
-Front facing eyes
-Close-set eyes are responsible for overlapping fields of vision, which enhances depth perception and hand-eye coordination
-Usually have single births and nurture for a very long time
A _______________ is a diagrammatic representation of evolutionary history and it is based on DNA sequencing.
Shared traits, Derived traits
To build a cladogram you must distinguish the difference between ______________- those that organisms have in common, and _________________, new characteristics or innovations that are not shared with ancestors.
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