World Civilization Chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (91)
Order Humans reached continents
Africa - 250,000 BP
Middle East - 100,000 BP
Asia - 70,000 B
Australia - 60,000 BP
Europe - 45,000 BP
Americas - 30,000 BP
Oceania - 3,500 BP
Kingship in first civilizations
Source of state authority
Viewed as divinely appointed
Paleolithic humans and their environments
Paleolithic humans adapted themselves to the environment rather than adapting the environment to suit their needs.
What: written in Sumerian (in cuneiform)
When: Around 2400 BC
Where: Uma vs. Lagash were the warring cities in Southern Mesopotamia. They spoke Acadian but wrote Sumerian.
Cultural continuity of ancient civilizations
China has had perhaps the most impressive/longest standing cultural continuity
China had a distinct political ideology early on in the form of a centralized state
Remnants of Greek and Roman thought endure today
Significance of the Fertile Crescent
Where: Located in the Middle East
What: Site of the first breakthrough to agriculture and later the development of some of the first civilizations. Its extraordinary variety of wild plants and animals capable of domestication = settled peoples could create productive, agricultural societies.
First domesticated plant
Where: Fertile Crescent
Significance of Nile Delta
Home to the Egyptian and Nubian civilizations.
A predictable, annual flooding of the Nile River provided for soil and water that nurtured a rich agriculture.
Significance of Anatolian Plateau
Agricultural village society
Evident female imagery in art that suggest a widespread cult of the Goddess that focused on "mystery of birth, death, and the renewal of life."
Suspected to be one of the societies that traced descendants through the female line and marriage practice had the men go to women's home.
Chronological development of the six first major civilizations
○ Mesopotamia `3000 BC first
○ Egypt `3000 BC second
○ Norte Chico ~3000 BC third
○ China (Yellow River) 2200 BC
○ Harrapan 2,000 BC
○ Olmec 1200 BC
Where: Southern Turkey
What: A very early agricultural village.
Had no streets, walked on the roofs.
An early example of social order — social and gender equality
○ Small female figurines uncovered at the excavation site, leading some researchers to believe women played a large role in religious and social life in Catalhuyuk
When: Flourished briefly around 13,000 years ago
Where: all over North America
What: there were scattered bands
Clovis culture disappeared as many species of large animals became extinct.
Aspects of Paleolithic culture
Travelling with crops was easier in Eurasia than in the Americas because many places at the same latitude= similar climates. 25-50 people. Low population growth.
Secondary products revolution
With the rise of neolithic societies came advancements in technology, including pottery, metallurgy, and textiles. Wool, plows (to make farming easier), enriching the soil with manure, milking animals, the realization that people could use animals to transport things, and beer, which was an important source of calories
When :Banpo was around the time when there was an explosion of technologies innovation (5000 BCE).
What: Early agricultural village that revealed features of the age of agriculture.
Diets supplemented with wild plants, animals, and fish.
Where: part of the Nile Valley civilizations
When: 8,000 BCE
What: Built a tower that was about 30 feet tall — a sign that the city had enough of a social structure to build such a tower; signs there could have been competition in the valley.
Mesopotamia/Sumer (when, importance)
What: Dramatic increase in agricultural produce, irrigation, tools
First signs of sophisticated society
Where: lowlands south of Gulf of Mexico
What:Big Olmec heads = a sign of resources and a complex society
When: 3000 BCE;
Where: modern Peru
What: Only early civilization that had no recognizable writing form, although some historians argue that the system of cord-knotting that they used for genealogy could be considered writing
When: 2700 BCE
Pyramids indicate that Egyptians were able to communicate amongst a large number of people, as well as obtain enough resources to get big projects done (COMPLEX SOCIETY!)
Harrappa/Indus River Valley (Name the Major City)
● When: 2000 BCE
● Mohenjo Daro — large building projects/cities were a sign of a well-developed society
● specialization emerges
● No evidence of a centralized state or political hierarchy.
● Irrigation increased the salinity of the soil and eroded the land
What: learned to use dams under Wu; since there was a lot of silt, the valley was very fertile; China had a distinct political ideology very early on, which set it apart from other early civilizations.
Where: Southeastern Turkey
When: 9,600 BC
What: A ceremonial site. Dubbed "The world's oldest temple."
T-shaped massive limestone pillars decorated with animal carvings.
Little evidence of human habitation, was the product of hunter-gatherer people who lived part of the year in settled villages.
Leads some historians to wonder if religion had anything to do with the agricultural revolution
Who: Southern California peoples.
What: Substantial and permanent structures accommodating up to 70 people; hereditary political systems & elites, market economy, beginnings of class distinction.
○ A more permanent form of hunter/gatherer society that actually settled
Where: Kalahari Desert, southern Africa
○ since women were the gatherers, they provided up to 70 percent of a society's diet
○ "the first affluent society;" they didn't HAVE a lot, they just WANTED less
○ Single leader
Rules by charisma, not force
○ Chiefs led important rituals and ceremonies, organized the community for warfare, directed the economy, resolved internal conflicts.
○ *Ex: Mesopotamia
Village (characteristics, examples)
○ Higher populations
○ Equality of men and women
○ *Ex: Catalhüyük and Banpo
○ Some villages traced lineage through women (maternal line) and others were patrilineal descent.
Pastoral Societies (Characteristics, Examples)
○ Depend on domesticated plants and animals
○ Did not emerge in the Americas because of the lack of animals
○ Moving society
○ Horses (domesticated 4,000 BCE in central Asia), camel, and cattle
○ Ex: Central Asia; Arabian Peninsula (desert)
○ Relative equality of men and women persisted
Strayer's definition of "Civilization" and Signs of civilization
"a new ... human society made possible by the ... Agricultural Revolution"
Encompassed large populations
People in cities organized and controlled by states; difference in skills
● signs of civilization: temples, palaces, elaborate sculptures, WRITTEN LITERATURE (except Norte Chico), calendars, hierarchies, large-scale warfare
Urban revolution (Examples and Signs)
Ex. Uruk (Meso.) is regarded as the first city
●Pyramids: sign people were working together/had a sense of community --complex
● Wall around entire city
● Warka Vase: representation of a stratified society
● Temples were centers of wealth in the earliest civilizations. Cities central to civilizations.
● Mohenjo Daro featured large houses, indoor plumbing, complex sewage system, and public bath.
Rise of social inequalities in first civilizations (Commoners, Aristocrats, and Slaves)
○ As civilizations grew, so did social inequality. Inequality and hierarchy was regarded as normal and natural.
○ Most people in civilizations were free commoners (artisans, soldiers, police, and most numerous of all, farmers). Their surplus production supported the upper classes.
Rise and effects of agriculture and animal domestication
Able to settle down.
Some scholars reason an increasing "food crisis" also led people to experiment with agriculture to increase food supply.
Increased food and subsequently, increased population growth. New and innovative technologies developed
Relying on a small number of plants or animals left societies vulnerable to famine.
Emergence of patriarchy verses matriarchy:
Since the rise of the First Civilizations, gender systems have been patriarchal.
○ Role of more intensive agricultural demands may have shifted the male sex above female.
○ Warfare contributed to patriarchy.
○ The powerful goddesses of earlier times were relegated to the home and hearth, replaced by dominant male deities now credited with the power of creation and viewed as the patrons of wisdom and learning.
Economic foundations of early civilization
All early civilizations were based on highly productive agricultural economies — irrigation, drainage, terracing, and flood control allowed early civilizations to tap the food-producing potential of their regions
Compare and contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt : ○ Environment and Culture
Nile river for Egypt was gentle and predictable. Tigris and Euphrates were "unpredictable and fitful"
○ Egypt was much more protected geographically than Meso.
○ Meso. peoples outlook on life was that it was precarious, unpredictable and often violent
○ Egypt saw life as stable
○ Meso. agriculture dwindled because of salinization of soil, deforestation and soil erosion. Shifted center of Meso. to the North.
○ Egypt agriculture was sustainable for thousands of years, naturally regulated river for crops.
Compare and contrast Mesopotamia and Egypt : ○ Cities and States
Meso. organized in dozen or more independent cities, city walls for protection, violence
○ Egypt merged states and chiefdoms, maintained unity and independence for 3,000 years. Sailing up and down the Nile made communication, exchange, unity and stability possible. Most people lived in agricultural villages. Pharaoh was considered the reason for the rising of the sun and flooding of the Nile. Pharaohs' power began to weaken around 2400 BCE after Nile's failure to flood, but centralized rule was restored in 2000 BCE, although pharaohs never regained their old power and prestige.
The Mandate of Heaven
Chinese emperors governed by the Mandate of Heaven as long as they ruled with benevolence and maintained social harmony among the people.
Rebellions, invasions, or floods were considered signs that an emperor had ruled badly and lost the Mandate of Heaven.
The emperor was to perform rituals thought to maintain the appropriate relationship between heaven and earth.
Ishi and the Yahi
Yahi were a hunting/gathering group of Indians in Northern California numbering 300-400 people. The gold rush caused an influx of settlers. who massacred the tribe over time.
● Ishi was the last known survivor of the tribe. Was studied by anthropologists for 5 years until his death.
Venus Figurines and Gender
The prevalence of Venus Figurines suggests that Paleolithic religious thought had a strongly feminine dissension, embodied in a Great Goddess and concerned with the regeneration and renewal of life.
Epic of Gilgamesh:
Legend on clay tablets of ruler of the Sumerian city of Uruk. Part human, part divine. Goes on a quest for eternal life.
Code of Hammurabi
Ruler of Babylonian Empire. Stone steles with laws, judgments or decrees. Protect the weak; maintain inequality.
Role of Slavery in early civilizations
a. Mesopotamia: Female slaves worked in weaving, males worked irrigation canals and building ziggurats
b. First Civilizations: slaves derived from prisoners of war, criminals, debtors. Could be sold or sacrificed.
Role of writing
Started as an accounting function
Provided support for states/sustained civilizations
Wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets, used for records of transactions, such as temple payments and taxes.
Regarded as the worlds first written language.
Sacred carvings. Used for business and administrative purposes, later used for religious inscriptions, stories, poetry, hymns, and mathematics.
China. Had written on them an early form of Chinese writing, which was intended to predict the future and assist China's rulers with the Mandate of Heaven in their task of governing. Divination.
Persian Empire (timing, culture)
Largest around 500 BCE.
Upheld local religions throughout the empire (allowed Jews to return to Palestine)
Persians willing to accept and even adopt foreign customs
used taxes, had an imperial courier service
Achaemenid Dynasty (main leaders)
553-330 BCE; the Persians were able to construct an imperial system; Cyrus and Darius (fake rebellion, Ahura Mazda) empire stretched from Egypt to India. Capitol: Percepolis
The great Persian god, from which kings derived their power
Persian governors — satraps were placed in each of the Persian empire's 23 provinces to keep an effective administrative system running; lower-level officials were drawn from local authorities; the imperial presence of the king was felt throughout the entirety of the empire
Sparta v. Athens
after the first round of Greco-Persian wars, Athens sought to establish its dominant position among Greek allies, ultimately leading to a bitter civil war (aka the Peloponnesian War) from 431-404 BCE; Sparta took the lead in defending traditional Greek city-states' independence, Athens was defeated; mistrust of one another grew, opening the way for Macedonia to take over Greece
took over Greece by 338 BCE, led by King Philip II; led to the political unification of Greece at the cost of prized independence of various city-states; set in motion a second round of wars between Greece and Persia
A Greek kind of city — represented the exportation of Greek culture; they were set up anywhere Alexander the Great went throughout the empire, and were centers of cultures and had Greek institutions; they concentrated on and preserved Greek culture; the most famous one was Alexandria
praised Athenian democracy in "Funeral Oration" wrote that Greece was victorious because of their democratic ideals; talked about the many noble aspects of Greek culture — sports, military, work ethic, democracy
Marathon and Greco Persian Wars
499-449 BCE; Ionian Greek (on the east side of the Aegean Sea) settlements had come under control of the Persian empire and rebelled, and Athens decided to help; the Greeks defeated the Persians on the land and on the sea; the battle of MARATHON (490 BCE): someone ran 26.2 miles from the battle to Athens to tell everyone the Greeks were victorious; victory was the turning point for the way Greeks thought about themselves
Athens Golden Age
500-450 BCE; the height of Athenian democracy/participation in government.....led to radicalization of Athenian democracy; after defeating Persia (which was a much larger empire) in the Greco-Persian Wars, Greeks began to believe that they were victorious because of they were democratically upstanding (Greek soldiers were there by choice and cohesive, whereas the Persian soldiers were forced to be there)
Alexander the Great
conquest of Persia lasted from 332-324 BCE; acquired a MASSIVE empire that encompassed Egypt, Anatolia, India, and beyond; he was known for sending messages ahead to cities giving them a choice Alexander was technically the last emperor of Persia; he destroyed Persepolis, largely putting an end to Persian culture.
era lasted from 323-30 BCE; polises started emerging during this era; native peoples of conquered areas were able to become Greek citizens by assuming Greek names; Greeks were assimilated into hierarchies in India, Persia, and Asia
Rome from city to empire
Rome was originally ruled by a king, aristocrats overthrew the monarchy and established a republic — patricians dominated society; deepening conflict with the plebeians eventually led to changes in Roman political life — Romans enjoyed rule of law, rights of citizens, and an absence of pretension — they believed they enjoyed greater freedom than their neighbors.
Romans' empire-building process began in 490 BCE and lasted for more than 500 years —they saw unconquered peoples as threats; people generally respected the way Romans governed themselves and wanted something similar
Punic Wars — 264-146 BCE, Rome vs. Carthage; while Rome was trying to conquer Carthage, it expanded its sphere of influence and by 146, Rome was largely recognized as having the most powerful military, as well as being the best managers of wealth, and for being respecters of people. Army "well-trained, well-fed, well-rewarded"
Similarities of Rome and China
○ Public works
○ Supernatural sanctions for leaders
○ Both absorbed a foreign religious tradition: Christianity in the Roman world, Buddhism in China.
○ Both civilizations had marked effects on the environment. Roman empire: deforestation and unprecedented levels of lead in the air. Chinese empire: air pollution, stripped the land of grass and forest cover, Yellow River
Differences of Rome and China
○ Romans were a minority within the empire, while the Chinese empire already ethnically Chinese.
○ Many elements of Roman culture were attractive, especially in western europe, while Greek culture retained prestige, resulting in a Greco-Roman tradition. Other non-Roman cultural traditions (Persian god Mithra, Egyptian god Isis, Christianity) also spread throughout the empire. Chinese culture, however, except for Buddhism, experienced little competition from older, venerated, or foreign traditions.
○ Language. Latin, an alphabetic language depicting sounds, gave rise to various distinct languages, whereas Chinese characters, which represented words more than sounds, were not easily transferable to other languages.
○ Different ideas of what made good government: for the Romans, it was good laws, for the Chinese, good men.
Was one of several military leaders that led successful campaigns and recruited soldiers directly from the ranks of the poor; soldiers became fiercely loyal to leaders, leading to rivalries within Rome, and ultimately a civil war; Ceasar played a particularly large role in the end of the Roman republic — he was considered a dictator and was assassinated; Octavian was his adopted heir
the first emperor of Rome (symbolized the end of the republic); who was eventually granted the title of Augustus, which implied a divine status; see statue of him (this is a primary source); he worked hard to preserve republican ideals, but later emperors were more reluctant to do so
Romans prided themselves on having rule of law, rights, upright moral behavior, being honest, etc.; a system of public assemblies allowed lower classes to shape public policy; Romans prided themselves on having more political freedom than their neighbors; As the Roman empire expanded, the traditional republican values declined, and Rome was eventually ruled by an emperor
lasted for about 120 years Rome's greatest extent and greatest authority
The Emperor of the Qin Dynasty
■ Unified China in 221-210 BCE
■ Legalism: Political philosophy that had clear rules and harsh punishments as a means of enforcing authority of the state
■ Extended into Vietnam and Korea; also pushed nomadic people called the Steppes out of the Northwest
■ Made Great Wall of China and system of weights, measures and currency
Empire did not last long because of harsh rules
Han emperor Wudi
● Established an imperial academy for training officials for an emerging bureaucracy with a curriculum based on the writings of Confucius. The beginning of a civil service system, complete with examinations and selection by merit.
Moral practice and ideology of the Chinese Empire
Less harsh rules than the Qin Empire and practiced a moralistic Confucianism instead of legalism. Peasant revolt (Yellow Turban Rebellion) in 184 CE because of increase in large landowning families. Fell in 220 CE.
Vietnamese Husband lord Thi Sach killed by Chinese governors for opposing taxes and payoffs to officials. Sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi raised forces and captured many towns and eliminated tribute taxes during their rule and wanted to restore Vietnamese aristocrat authority. Chinese later overwhelmed them and later Vietnamese records blamed female leadership for the loss.
Mauryan Empire (India)
326-184 BCE. Had a large military and about 50 million people; had a political and moral philosophy for rulers called the Arthashastra. Formation was in response to Alexander the Great's arrival in India. Caste system.
268-232 BCE. An emperor that left edicts carved on rocks that showed thoughts and activities. Governed with the moral teachings of Buddhism and Hinduism and did not seek to conquer places like Alexander the Great or Shihuangdi
After the fall of the Indus Valley Civilization in the 1500 BCE, a new set of cities/kingdoms was established in Northeastern India near the Ganges River (600 BCE).
Appeared 600 years after Mauryan empire from 320-550 CE. Had flourishing art, math, science while discovering the Earth was round and retained elements of Hindu and Buddhist culture. Commerce reached Roman Empire
The Epic of Gilgamesh (Doc 2.1)
Glimpse into Mesopotamian culture and religious thinking
The Law Code of Hammurabi (Doc 2.2)
Glimpse of social and economic life in Mesopotamia. If/then statements on law
A Pyramid Text (Doc 2.3)
Egyptian Poem about thinking of life, death and afterlife
Book of the Dead (Doc 2.4)
"Negative Confession" "I have...." statements by a deceased person to gods as to why he/she should be able to achieve eternal life (Egyptian)
Be a Scribe (Doc 2.5)
Egyptian text telling someone to be a scribe because other jobs are harder and painful. Tells of different jobs and how bad they are while saying being a scribe will bring you wealth.
A Seal from the Indus Valley (Visual 2.1)
Bison like looking seal with some scripting above it
Man from Mohenjo Daro (Visual 2.2)
Seven inch tall statue found in Mohenjo Daro that probably represents an elite man because Indus Valley regions do not show signs of a single ruler like grand temples or wealth filled tombs
Dancing Girl (Visual 2.3)
Depicts a confident woman and suggests that women played a large role in social and religious life. Variety of clothing and decorations in women statues shows that females had class and individuality.
All the visual documents in Chapter 2 depict life in the Indus Valley because writing was harder to come by for that civilization.
Funeral Oration (Doc 3.1)
Given by Pericles, this speech talks about how great Athens is because of its democracy and freedom. Talks about having a greater military than others and acting in unison. Occured after first year of Peloponnesian War
The Roman Oration (Doc 3.2)
Given by Aelius Aristides talking about the greatness of the Roman Republic to the Roman emperor.
The Writings of Master Han Fei (Doc 3.3)
Talks about how rule must be strong and enforced, basically legalism. Also tells about reward and punishment.
The Rock Edicts (Doc 3.4) Indian
By Ashoka, talks about Beloved of the Gods and dhamma, which makes things better such as: restraint in killing animals, proper behavior to family
Behistun Inscription (Visual 3.1)
Shows the King Darius from the Persian Empire and nine captive slaves to the right.Winged disk symbol, Faravahar, is above them. Carved out of rock 300 feet high up on a cliff. Represent Darius' right to rule and his conquest because of Ahuramazda.
Harmodius and Aristogeiton (3.2) Athens
Shows two nude men standing side by side. First statues of mortals and not gods
Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex
Huge Chinese complex spanning 56 square kilometers and was a way for the emperor to live in the afterlife or perhaps make a transition to the afterlife. Had hundreds of soldiers and other precious things fit for a king. The picture shows soldiers, horses and a chariot.
Stone statue of the Roman emperor Augustus.Carvings on the breastplate depict gods and the statue shows Augustus as barefoot which is normally reserved for gods and heroes.
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