-A contrast enhanced study is a study where a contrast medium is ingested or injected into the body to improve visualization of areas with minimal inherent contrast. It used in all organs and vessels of the body
-Arthrography is a contrast media study of a joint and its soft tissue structures. It demonstrates abnormalities of the synovium, articular cartilage, capsule, and soft tissues.
-Myelography is a contrast media study of the spinal cord, dura mater, and nerve roots. Contrast is injected into the subarachnoid space, mixes with the CSF, and the fluoroscopic table is tilted until the contrast flows to the level of interest. Abnormal results may reveal a ruptured disc, spinal stenosis, nerve root injury, and intravertebral tumor.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive, systemic, inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting primarily synovial joints, although nonarticular tissues(muscles, heart, lungs) may be involved. It affects 3% of the population (women 3x more than men). It is characterized by exacerbations of bilateral symmetrical joint inflammation, hyperplastic synovitis(pannus), with resultant cartilage and bone destruction. In the later stages it is characterized by deformities, contractures, and ankylosis.
• Soft tissue changes- fusiform periarticular swelling of small joints
• Articular erosions- within first 2 years see radiolucent defects, synovial cysts
• Osteoporosis- periarticular rarefaction secondary to the increased blood flow to the synovium
• Joint deformities- concentric joint space narrowing, subluxations, contractures, swan neck, boutonniere, telescoping, ankylosis(pathological fusion of joint surfaces)