Terms in this set (32)
Does Kw increase or decrease with T? Why?
increase, the dissociation of water is endothermic so increasing T favors forward direction, thus more ions.
Name 2 ways in which you can create a buffer?
1) Add together a weak base with a salt of that base made with a strong acid. (or visa versa)
2) by partially neutralizing a weak base with a strong acid or weak acid with a strong base. (Ex: 0.2 mol NH3 + 0.1 mol HCl)
What is the pH of a salt made from a WA/SB? SA/WB? SA/SB?
How do you compute % dissociation?
[A⁻]/[HA] x 100 or [BH⁺]/[B] x 100
What is the "virtual" Ka for the complete dissociation of a dibasic acid?
K₁ x K₂
At what point during titration do you have the perfect buffer, and what is the pH at this point?
at half equivalence, pH=pKa
How do you find the pH for a dibasic acid? (H₂A)?
perform ICE BOX calculation based on K₁
For a dibasic acid (H₂A), [A²⁻]= ____ ?
In equilibrium calculations for weak acids/bases, when should you ignore "x" with respect to initial concentration of acid or base
ignore "x" if its K is very small compared to [reactant] (5% rule)
To have a decent capacity, a buffer must contain decent amounts of:
both members of a conjugate pair (one must be a weak base or acid)
State whether K is high or low and whether H₂O a product or reactant for the following reactions. a) neutralization. b) dissociation in water.
neutralization: high K, H₂O product
dissociation: low K, H₂O reactant
What reacts with an acid to create hydrogen gas?
An active metal.
Acids + Carbonates (bicarbonates) make?
Salt, Carbon dioxide and water.(latter also known as carbonic acid H₂CO₃)
Acid plus base make?
Salt + water.
Acidic gases like SO₂ in the atmosphere cause what environmental problems?
Acid rain - dissolves marble buildings/statues and kills trees.
The definition of acidic basic and neutral aqueous solutions is:
acidic is when [H⁺] > [OH⁻], basic is when [H⁺] < [OH⁻], neutral is when [H⁺] = [OH⁻]
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is: A Bronsted-Lowry base is?
acid = proton donor
base = proton acceptor.
An amphiprotic (amphoteric) species is: Give examples
A substance that can act as an acid or a base. ex. water, HCO₃⁻ ion etc.
A Lewis acid is: give one example
A Lewis Base is: give one example
acid a lone pair acceptor ex. BF₃
base is a lone pair donor. ex. NH₃
a) Give an example of
i) a concentrated weak acid.
ii) a dilute strong acid.
b) Which would cause the bulb in a conductivity apparatus to be brightest?
i) 8M HF
ii) 0.10M HCl
b) 0.10M HCl (more ions)
generally, which oxy acid is strongest?
the one with most oxygen atoms (highest oxidation number)
Is magnesium oxide (and other main group metal oxides) likely to be acidic, basic or neutral?
What is the pH of 1.0M HCl? 1M NaOH?
0 and 14
If a weak acid is diluted more, what happens to its % dissociation value?
For a weak acid solution in water, Ka = 10⁻⁶ what is Kb for its conjugate base?
During a titration what is present in the beaker at the equivalence point?
a salt solution.
What range of indicator would you use for the following titrations. a) s.a. + s.b. b) w.a. + s.b. c) w.b. + s.a.
a) any range. b) 8-10 c) 4-6
What is the difference between equivalence point and end point of a titration.
equivalence point is the titrant volume when the moles of acid and base are stoichiometrically equal; end point is the titrant volume when the color of the indicator permanently changes. If you choose the correct indicator, they should occur at the same volume.
What is the conjugate base of NH₃?
What is the conjugate acid of H₂PO₄⁻
In a titration of "x" with "y" which is in the buret? The substance in the buret is the _____________.
"y" it is the "titrant"
Neutralization is an exo/endothermic reaction.
Exothermic (∆H for ANY sa/sb = -57kJ/mol)
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