NC Civics & Economics Unit 1 & 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (105)
the study of the rights and duties of citizens
those residing in the US without permission from the government
a member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to it by birth or naturalization and is entitled to full citizenship rights
an action required by law
an action citizens should take
a person that is legally admitted as permanent residence of a country
the ruling authority of a community, organization that has the power to make and enforce laws
the English philosopher who developed the social contract theory
social contract theory
the theory that humans agree with one another to create a government and give up some freedom to this government in order to promote safety for all
the principle of one central government and several state or local governments
government in which supreme authority rests with the people
kind of democracy in which citizens choose a smaller group of people to represent them (We have this in the US)
kind of democracy in which citizens vote on each matter proposed to the government (We do not have this in US, well not all the time)
trade route between the New World, Africa, and the West Indies
the brutal passage taken by the slaves from Africa to the New World
the first permanent English settlement
the commander and leader of the Jamestown colony
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619. First elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia. Served as an early model of elected government in the New World.
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. Mayflower Compat
group of English protestants who settled the Massachusetts bay colony
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
1588-1649 First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
city on a hill
what John Winthrop said that their Puritan model societies based on Christian principles should be (better than everyone else's societies.)
a written code that limited the power of the English monarchy for the first time; also called the Great Charter
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware-the most diverse
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
New England colonies
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire
Founded because colonists were looking for gold
farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing. Done in New England b/c of Rocky Soil.
Middle Colonies known for growing grains.
Other Catholics persecuted and fled to here...
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Founded as debtor's colony
founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
uprising among back country farmers in Virginia against the gov't of Jamestown for failing to protect them against Native American attacks. Significance: this was the first revolt or rebellion that happened in the colonies.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
Maryland Toleration Act
First law granting protection for all Christian religious groups.
colony known for religious intolerance
Wanted to break away from the Anglican Church
Wanted to purify Anglican Church from within
introduced tobacco and helped Jamestown succeed, He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
ruled by a king
a lack of government and law; confusion
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit. Produced in southern colonies
New England Town Meetings
Democratic style of government. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
1735 trial that promoted the idea of freedom of the press in the colonies.
The colonies existed to benefit England economically.
A period of religious revival and growth for many denominations
the non-enforcement of trade laws in the colonies
Trade and Navigation Acts
This ended due to British debt from the French and Indian War
Proclamation of 1763
Began to be enforced at the end of the French and Indian War
Where did the colonists want representation?
an imposed British tax on sugar
required colonists to house British troops
placed a tax on legal documents
This act said that Parliament shall have the power to make laws that applied to the colonists in "all cases whatsoever."
Colonists threaten British soldiers. British soldiers open fire resulting in the death of 5 colonists.
Place duties on glass, tea, lead, and paper
drove American tea merchants out of business
Boston Tea Party
A group of colonists dressed as Indians threw tea into the harbor as a result of the Tea Act
British imposed these acts as a result of the Boston Tea Party
CIS Citizen Immigration Services
the agency responsible for the naturalization process
E Pluribus Unum
"out of many, one" meaning the US is a nation of immigrants
a person that is legally admitted as a permanent resident of a country
in the US Congress today this body is based on equality and satisfies the New Jersey Plan
This group opposed the ratification of the US Constitution
House of Representatives
in the US Congress this body is based on population and satisfies the Virginia Plan
the type of legislature that the Great Compromise gave the US
revise the Articles
the original purpose of the Constitutional Convention
Father of the US Constitution
led by a group of angry farmers and exposed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Land Ordinance of 1787
passed by Congress under the Articles. Established steps for statehood for land around the Ohio River.
Land Ordinance of 1785
passed by Congress under the Articles. Established townships from western land and set aside part of that land for the establishment of schools.
Wanted representation in Congress based on population. This satisfied the larger states.
New Jersey Plan
wanted representation in Congress based on equality. This satisfied the small states.
The Articles outlined a stronger _____ government
The Articles outlines a weaker _______ government
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended the American Revolution
number of states needed to ratify the US Constitution
supported the ratification of the US Constitution. Wanted a stronger national government
opposed the ratification of the US Constitution. Wanted stronger state government.
term for conferring upon an alien the rights and privileges of a citizen
terms for the movement of non-native people into a country in order to settle there
a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority, usually taken by force
terms from the concept that the the governments is not above the law and therefore is limited in its power
separation of power
term from dividing power amongst different branches of government
term for government's power comes from the consent of the governed
form of government in which power is held by ruling elite
form of government in which officials are regarded as divinely inspired and appointed
form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small group
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment thinker who wrote the text "The Social Contract and Majority Rule"
Enlightenment thinker who was in favor of separation of powers and checks and balances
political theory where people retain "old world" culture and "new world" identity simultaneously
political theory where immigrants assimilate into a new cultural identity
guaranteed to you the day you are born
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
ways to help the community without being paid
loose configuration of states joined for mutual benefit
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution
Bill of Rights
added to the US Constitution and led to its ratification
written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay to persuade others to accept the Constitution