based on the modern concept that a nation is composed of people who are joined together by the bonds of common language, customs, culture, and history, and who, because of those bonds, should share the same government. (political and ethnic boundaries should coincide). schoolteachers spread these ideas by imparting a nation's official language and history. came to be associated with groups that were large enough to support a viable economy, that had a history of significant cultural association, that possessed a cultural elite that could nourish and spread the national language, and that could conquer other peoples to establish and protect their own independence
-the example of English liberties
-the so-called principles of 1789 as embodied in the French "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
_____ political figures sought to establish a framework of legal equality, religious toleration, and freedom of the press & to limit the arbitrary power of the government against the persons and property of individual citizens. believed that the legitimacy of government emanated from the freely given consent of the governed expressed through elected representatives or parliamentary bodies. free government required that state or crown ministers be responsible to the representatives of the nation rather than to the monarch
liberals favored the removal of international tariffs as well as internal barriers to trade. favored the rapid construction of railways from 1830s+. opposed the old paternalistic legislation that established wages and labor practices by government or by guild privileges. labor was simply one more commodity to be bought and sold freely. liberals sought an economic structure where people were free to use their talents and property to enrich themselves. they contended that this would lead to more goods and services for everyone at lower prices
occurred on December 26, 1825.
In Russia, the armies were supposed to swear allegiance to Nicholas I, but he was less popular than Constantine & more conservative. So the Moscow regiment marched into the Senate Square in St. Petersburg & refused to swear allegiance to him & instead called for a constitution & Constantine). Nicolas ordered cavalry & artillery to attack the insurgents.
-the crushing of liberalism as a political influence in Russia. Nicholas I also manifested extreme conservatism in foreign affairs
In Russia, Tsar Alexander I suddenly died with no direct heir & his brother Constantine who ruled over the Russia forces in Poland, didn't want the throne. Some documents were found proclaiming Alexander's younger brother as Tsar - he didn't want it either. Arguing ensued and there was no tsar for 3 weeks. Then ______ was forced to take over. He was very conservative.
brother who succeeded Louis XVIII. considered himself monarch by divine right. Moved to restore lands that the French aristocrats had lost during the revolution. pressed conservative measures through the Chamber of Deputies.
after liberals were voted into the Chamber of Deputies, Charles X decided to undertake a royalist seizure of power. Charles made a foreign diversion then (on July 25, 1830) he issued _______ which restricted freedom of the press, dissolved the recently elected Chamber of Deputies & called for new elections under a franchise restricted to the wealthiest people in the country
Revolution of 1830
because of the Four Ordinances, liberal newspaper immediately called on the nation to reject the monarch's actions. the laboring populace of Paris took to the streets and erected barricades. then the king called out troops and 1,800+ died in the ensuing battles. On august 2, Charles X left & went into exile. the liberals in the Chamber of Deputies named a new ministry composed of constitutional monarchists
the Duke of Orléans, the head of the liberal branch of the royal family, was appointed the new monarch by the Chamber of Deputies after Charles X left. his reign was known as the July Monarchy.
Chamber of Deputies
part of the French government. after Charles X, the king had to cooperate with the ______ and could not make laws on his own
Act of Union
occurred in 1800. this act between England and Ireland suppressed the separate Irish Parliament. After this, the Irish now sent representatives to the British Parliament at Westminster, but only Protestant Irishmen could be elected to represent overwhelmingly Catholic Ireland
lead Irish nationalists to organize the Catholic Association to agitate for Catholic emancipation. In 1828, he was elected to Parliament but could not legally take the seat
Catholic emancipation act
the movement for legal rights for Roman Catholics. Roman Catholics could now become members of Parliament.
Great Reform Act
the Whig ministry presented the House of Commons with a major reform bill that wanted to:
1) replace "rotten" boroughs which had few voters, with representatives for the previously unrepresented manufacturing districts and cities
2) increase the number of voters in England and Wales
The House of Commons passed the reform bill & eventually the House of Lords accepted it.
This act expanded the size of the English electorate & established the foundations for long-term political stability in Britain