The Cold War
Terms in this set (69)
The Cold War
1945-1991 This refers to the period following WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.This was a period when much of the world was divided by the communist/non-communist battle for military and political superiority. While the USA and the Soviet Union (USSR) were unquestionably the world's two superpowers, they avoided direct military conflict. Instead, they sought to bring other countries into their fold....Hot wars during this time include Korean War and Vietnam War
In politics, the right of a people to shape its own national identity and form of government, without outside coercion or influence
Private citizens control economic activity. An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth. Usually in capitalist countries there is a democratic political system with multiple political parties competing for power. This is the system in the United States.
This is a major component of capitalism. Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference.
A command economic system in which the Communist Party is in control of the economic system and there is no private ownership of the means of production and distribution. Historically, the countries the have this system have been dictatorships. This was the system in the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, and Satellite Nations of Eastern Europe.
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
Winston Churchill's term for describing the huge differences that separated the Soviet Union from "The West" (The west means the democratic, capitalist countries..led by the US and western Europe)
The U.S. policy of not letting the Soviet Union and other countries expand their communist empires.
a plan for containing communism and dictatorships by helping countries like Greece and Turkey get back on their economic feet
an expanded version of the Truman Doctrine and a part of the containment policy. The U.S. ended up giving $12 billion to help Europe rebuild after World War Two. We did this to stop the spread of Communism in western Europe.
Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the Soviet Union (USSR) and thought of as under the USSR's control
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
This conference was held in the U.S between August and October in 1944. The Soviet Union, Britain, U.S, and China attended. Discussed and formulated creating an organization for peace that had members from all the powers of the world. Important because it was the start of the UN.
Declaration of Human Rights
A declaration adopted by the United Nations to give rights to every human on the planet. These rights include the right to life, political rights, freedom of religion, and economic rights
1945 meeting between Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt in which the leaders discussed plans for the post-war world and Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe. The breaking of this promise led in part to the Cold War.
Mary Mcleod Bethune
A leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
..., The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Described the belief that if Vietnam succumbed to commumism, the other nations of Asia would also fall to the Communists
During the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants - but did not directly attack the other superpower.
Nations with enough military, political, and economic strength to influence events in many areas around the globe. During the Cold War the two Superpowers were the U.S. and The Soviet Union (USSR)..towards the end of the Cold War and currently China is emerging as a superpower as well.
Eisenhower Policy of using the threat of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a diplomatic tool. Example: "willing to go to the edge.", The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
A military doctrine associated with President Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles. The idea was that the United States would retaliate with massive force against any attack by the Soviet Union, or other hostile power.
the spread of nuclear weapons to new nations
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
1948: Soviet response to US, Britian, and France uniting their parts of Germany into West Germany. Prevented trucks and trains from entering West Germany. West Allies got around it w/ Berlin Air Lift.
Joint effort by the US and Britain to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
After 1949, Mao Zedong took control of China making the two largest nations in the world under communist control..the other being the Soviet Union (USSR). China backed the communists in North Korea during the Korean War and North Vietnam during the Vietnam War
1950-53 ...The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; The war resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.
A line that crosses Korea at 38 degrees north latitude, North being communist. South Korea being capitalist and backed by the U.S.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949, an organization whose members include the United States, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkey, all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all.
A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
..., an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest, Agency that coordinates America's spy network in the world
Soviet secret police agency charged with domestic and foreign intelligence
where the Communists finally agreed to sit down and negotiate a treaty between North and South Korea after a futile effort by both sides to conquer the peninsula. the conference that established a DMZ at the 38th parallel and required the release of all prisoners of war.
Commander of US forces in the Pacific Theater of operations during World War Two..lost the Philippines, to the Japanese, vowing "I shall return". Did return to recapture the Philippine islands. During the Korean War this American General was fired by Harry Truman for insubordination. Like many members of the military system, this general argued for an expanded military conflict against communist China and the Soviet Union.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
After the Korean War Dwight Eisenhower created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization in an attempt to halt further communist advances in that region.
A chamber (often underground) reinforced against bombing and provided with food and living facilities . These became popular amongst Americans during the Cold War because of the heightened possibility of a Nuclear War
Eisenhower's Sec. of State 1953-1959; harsh anti-Communist; called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious),
Secretary of State who created brinkmanship
moralistic in his belief that Communism was evil and must be confronted with the readiness and willingness to go to war and "massive retaliation" (the threat of using nuclear weapons)
He pushed for the US intervention in Vietnam. Guatemala coup d'état mastermind.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)
The 32nd President of the US. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Depression and World War Two. He is the only president to be elected 4 times (a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd amendment to the US Constitution. He was President for most of WWII and signed the Atlantic Charter, with Winston Churchill. One of the "Big Three"
The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world; self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament
A secret research and development project of the U.S to develop the atomic bomb during World War Two. Its success granted the U.S the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country and the world into the atomic era...First successful test of the new bomb was July 16, 1945 in New Mexico
During the Cold War, Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created totalitarian state by purging all oppostion
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union until 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition. Collectivization of farms. Soviet leader during Worls War Two and early cold war. One of the big three
Truman- MacArthur controversy
During Korean War. General Douglas MacArthur was designated commander of the United nations forces defending South Korea. President Harry Truman fired MacArthur for making public statements that contradicted the official policies of the US Government
Red Scare (s)
Nationwide panic that and fear that communists might seize power in the US. First appeared right after World War One and early 1920s and then after World War Two in the late 1940s into the 1950s.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s. The term has become a synonym for public charges and persecution of disloyalty without evidence.
House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
An investigative committee in the US House of Representatives that dealt with "communists or people with ties to communism" in America...It was originally created in the late 1930s but was very active after World War two and into the 1950s. Some investigations were televised.
Loyalty Review Board
(1947) federal board set up by President Truman that checked up on government workers, and dismissed those found to be communist....
effort to control possible communist influence in US gov: boards to investigate "security risks" working for gov- some employees released for affiliation with unacceptable political organizations/ sexual orientation
The act of spying, especially a government spy obtaining secrets of another government.
This couple was tried and executed in 1953 for selling secrets to the Soviet Union to make the atomic bomb.
Soviets Explode Atomic Bomb
In 1949 Americans learned that the Soviet Union had exploded an atomic bomb....This was years earlier than Amercian experts had predicted it would take the Soviets to make their own atomic bomb.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
In 1957, Soviets launched the first man-made satellite escalating tensions and resulting in an arms race
An American expert on Soviet affairs who wrote only "a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies" would eventually cause the Soviets to back off their Communist ideology of world domination and live in peace with non-Communist nations
He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
Comintern 'Communist International'
Set up in Moscow in 1919 as the world organization of Communist supporters of Russian revolutionaries. Non-Communist nations such as the America believed this to be a Soviet puppet group through which Moscow could use citizens of other nations to foster rebellions and promote Communism worldwide.
Traditional Historian Approach to Interpreting Cold War
For more than a decade after the end of the Second World War, few U.S. historians challenged the official U.S. interpretation of the beginnings of the Cold War. This "orthodox" school of thought places the responsibility for the Cold War on the Soviet Union and its expansion into Eastern Europe.
Revisionist approach to Interpreting Causes of the Cold War
challenged the long-held assumptions of "orthodox" accounts, arguing that Americans had always been an empire-building people even while American leaders denied it. Revisionists placed more responsibility for the breakdown of postwar peace on the United States, citing a range of their efforts to isolate and confront the Soviet Union well before the end of World War II. They argued that American policymakers shared an overarching concern with maintaining the market system and democracy. Revisionists beleived To achieve that objective the US wanted an Open Door policy abroad, aimed at increasing access to foreign markets for U.S. business and agriculture
Post Revisionist Interpretation
In this interpretation the Cold War was not so much the responsibility of either side but rather the result of predictable tensions between two world powers that had been suspicious of one another for nearly a century. More
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Capitol of Germany. Occupied by jointly by the allies at the end of WWII (Britain, U.S., Soviet Union, France)
(Nov. 28- Dec. 1, 1943) meeting of president Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin. The conference was held to strengthen the cooperation of the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR in WWII. First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
revolution in which Bolsheviks overthrew the czar's government and created a communist government
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917. They believed that the proletariats should overthrow the czar and establish a Communist state
Nazi/ Soviet Non- Agression pact
In 1939 The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression pact, called the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. The pact contained a secret protocol, revealed only after Germany's defeat in 1945, according to which the states of Northern and Eastern Europe were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence". In the North, Finland, Estonia and Latvia were assigned to the Soviet sphere. Poland was to be split between Germany and The Soviet Union. The German invasion of Eastern Oland began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion of Western Poland commenced on 17 September 1939
Code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. Hitler broke the Non-Aggression Pact The invasion began on 22 June 1941 and marked the beginning of the rapid escalation of World War Two, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition....this made U.S. and USSR allies.
The Soviet Union (USSR)
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Country that was founded after the Russian Revolution in 1917. This country was the main rival of the U.S. during the Cold War
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Bomb that changed the world, ended WWII in Japan, created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union
bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities.
Symbol of the Cold War