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electoral college

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president


person appointed to vote in presidential elections for the major candidates

executive order

a rule issued by the president that has the force of law


the act of excusing a mistake or offense


a warrant granting postponement (usually to postpone the execution of the death sentence)


a warrant granting release from punishment for an offense

foreign policy

actions that a nation takes in relation to other nations

national security

the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm


a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

executive agreement

an agreement made between the president and a head of state


a diplomat of the highest rank

trade sanction

an effort to punish another nation by imposing trade barriers


ban on commerce or other activity


group of officials who head government departments and advise the President

federal bureaucracy

everyone who works for the government, including non elected employees

independent agency

an agency of the United States government that is created by an act of Congress and is independent of the executive departments

government corporation

A government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program.

political appointee

a person appointed to a federal position by the president

civil service worker

a person hired into a government position

civil service system

the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

merit system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability

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