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photosystem I

P700, makes NADPH, does not take place first

photosystem II

One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center, makes ATP and uses electrons from light


one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules, an electron carrier that provides the high-energy electrons needed to make carbon-hydrogen bonds in the third stage of photosynthesis


Similar structure to ATP but has only 2 phosphate groups. Partly charged, adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that stores and then releases energy in living organisms


Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).


a tiny particle or packet of light energy

red light waves

longer wavelength (lower frequency) than violet but shorter (higher frequency) than infrared waves

blue light waves

are shorter wavelengths (but higher frequency) used in photosynthesis.


carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle

Calvin Cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars


what is transported during photosythesis

electron transport chain

the series of molecules down which excited electrons are passed in a thylakoid membrane

thylakoid membrane

Contains pigments, photosystems, ATP synthase, and an electron transport train and is responsible for the light-dependent aspect of photosynthesis.

ATP Synthase

large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP


an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage


organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy


the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

molecular oxygen

comes from life, photosynthesis in plants and algae

water and Carbon dioxide

besides energy what 2 things do the cells need to make sugar?

energy source for photosythesis



green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis

Hydrogen ions

pumped from matrix to intermembrane space; move through ATP synthase to make ATP

order these in terms of size

plant, leaf, cell, chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, chlorphyll molecule


Sugar, Manufactured during photosynthesis, Main source of energy for plants and animals, Metabolized during cellular respiration

cellular respiration

the process of producing ATP in the cell from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water


Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy


The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life

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