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One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center, makes ATP and uses electrons from light
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules, an electron carrier that provides the high-energy electrons needed to make carbon-hydrogen bonds in the third stage of photosynthesis
Similar structure to ATP but has only 2 phosphate groups. Partly charged, adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that stores and then releases energy in living organisms
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
red light waves
longer wavelength (lower frequency) than violet but shorter (higher frequency) than infrared waves
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
electron transport chain
the series of molecules down which excited electrons are passed in a thylakoid membrane
Contains pigments, photosystems, ATP synthase, and an electron transport train and is responsible for the light-dependent aspect of photosynthesis.
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
order these in terms of size
plant, leaf, cell, chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, chlorphyll molecule
Sugar, Manufactured during photosynthesis, Main source of energy for plants and animals, Metabolized during cellular respiration
the process of producing ATP in the cell from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
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