Terms in this set (88)
hierarchic system of organization from most inclusive to least inclusive:
the gradual change in a species over time
what is the order of the scientific process?
the most significant aspect of water is the ______________________ of its bonds
it is the polar nature of water that allows for _______________________ between molecules
high specific heat
water's _______________________________ allows water to resist shifts in temperature; stabilize climates
ability of a molecule to stay bonded or attracted to another molecule of the same substance
ability of water to bond or attract other molecules or substances
when water freezes it forms a ________________, which actually causes the molecules to spread apart, resulting in the phenomenon of floating
water's ability to dissolve a number of different solvent's due to polarity
generally long chains or polymers of sugars
what are the most important functions of carbohydrates?
better known as fats, but specifically they are fatty acids, phospholipids, and steroids
contain no double bonds in their hydrocarbon tail; solids; general public considers to be detrimental
have one or more double bonds; liquid at room temperature
consist of two fatty acids of varying length bonded to a phosphate group
the phosphate group is charged and therefore _____________________
the hydrocarbon tail is of the fatty acids is ____________________
a component of membranes; many are precursors to significant hormones
what are the most significant contributor to cellular function?
proteins are polymers of 20 molecules called _________________________
what are the largest of the biological molecules?
particular types of proteins that act to catalyze different reactions or processes
components of the molecules of inheritance
contains the code necessary for replication
used in transfer and as a messenger in most species of the genetic code
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism
high energy-low energy
in which standpoint do metabolic pathways progress?
the fundamental unit of biology
lack a defined nucleus and do not contain membrane-bound organelles
have a membrane enclosed nucleus and a series of membrane bound organelles that carry out the functions of the cell as directed by the nucleus; more complex of the two cell types
contains the DNA of the cell in the chromosomes
contain all of the material for the regeneration of the cell, as well as all instructions for the function of the cell
humans have ______ pairs of chromosomes
organelles that read the RNA produced in the nucleus and translate the genetic instructions to produce proteins
cells with a high rate of protein synthesis usually have a ____________ number of ribosomes
_____________________ are ribosomes found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
_____________________ are ribosomes found in the cytoplasm
a membranous organelle found attached to the nuclear membrane and consists of two continuous parts
ER that is covered with ribosomes; responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production
ER lacks ribosomes; functions as the detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules
packaging, processing, and shipping organelle; transports materials from the ER throughout the cell
where intracellular ingestion takes place; packed with hydrolytic enzymes
proteins, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids
what can lysosomes hydrolyze?
membrane enclosed structures that have various functions depending on cell type
food uptake through the cell membrane, creating a food vacuole
plant cells have a __________________ that functions as storage, waste disposal, protection and hydrolysis
found in the most eukaryotic cells and are the site of cellular respiration
found in plants and are the the site of photosynthesis
the most important component of the cell; contributes to protection, communication, and the passage of substances into and out of the cell
bilayer of phospholipids
the cell membrane consists of a ___________________ with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins peppered throughout; selectively permeable due to a hydrophobic region
cytosol of the cell; 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH
where does glycolysis take place and what does it produce?
conversion of glucose to pyruvate
matrix of the mitochondria; 2 ATP, 6 CO2, 6 NADH
where does the krebs cycle take place and and what does it produce?
electron transport chain
oxidation of NADH molecules to produce oxygen and water
for every glucose molecule in the electron transport chain, what is produced?
32-36 ATP molecules
in cellular respiration, what is the total number of ATP molecules that can be produced
a precursor to the glucose molecule; reverse of cellular respiration adding light energy
light reactions are those that convert _____________ energy to __________________ energy
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell replicates, divides and produces two identical cells
a type of asexual reproduction that occurs in five stages before pinching in two (cytokinesis)
what are the five stages of mitosis?
chromosomes are visibly separate and each duplicated chromosome has two noticeable sister chromatids
nuclear envelope begins to disappear and the chromosomes begin to attach to the spindle that is forming along the axis of the cell
all chromosomes align along the center of the cell
begins when chromosomes start to separate; chromatids are considered separate chromosomes
chromosomes gather on either side of the now separating cell; end of mitosis
when two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation
process that determines how reproductive cells divide in a sexually reproducing organism
meiosis one and meiosis two result in _____ daughter cells
period of the cell cycle that the chromosomes are duplicated and the cell prepares for division
who discovered the basic principles of genetics and determined that observable traits in peas were passed from one generation to the next
two alternative versions of a gene
if both alleles are the same type
if both alleles are different types
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
combination of alleles that you inherited from your parents
physical characteristics of an organism
Watson and Crick
who described the structure of DNA to be a double helical structure?
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
what are the four nitrogenous bases in DNA?
each gene along a strand of DNA is a template for _________________________
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
what are the four nitrogen bases of RNA?
every group of 3 bases along the stretch of RNA
type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
DNA in the nucleus has control over ________________ taking place in the cell
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