56 terms

Cell Structure and Function

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Cell wall
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
chloroplast
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
cristae
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
cytoplasm
The jellylike fluid and organelles between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
rough endoplasmic reticulum
site of synthesis and transport of proteins
eukaryotic cell
A type of cell with distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
flagellum
A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility. Many bacteria are flagellated, and sperm are flagellated.
Golgi apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for transport within the cell and for export by the cell
grana
stacks of thylakoids
lysosome
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
nucleoid
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
plasma membrane
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
ribosome
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
transport vesicle
a vesicle that moves from one part of the cell to another
Cell Theory
living organisms are composed of one or more cells; cells are the smallest units of life; cells come from pre-existing cells
Person who first saw the cells in cork tissue
Robert Hooke
seven functions of life
nutrition, growth, reproduction, metabolism, homeostasis, response, excretion
Common elements of all cells
Cell membrane, DNA, cytoplasm, ribosomes
requirements of all cells for survival
nutrient inputs and waste removal
Requirements of all cells for survival
Energy input and energy output
Nutrient inputs
Water, gases, ions, vitamins
four classes of organic nutrient inputs
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
carbohydrates
monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Carboydrates
Glucose, Sucrose, Cellulose
Lipids
Fats, waxes, oils, steroids
protein building block
amino acid
nucleic acid building block
nucleotide
two types of nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
cellular wastes (nitrogenous)
urea, uric acid, ammonia
Cellular wastes
Water, CO2, O2, ions
Prokaryotic genetic material
DNA naked and circular in nucleoid region
Prokaryotic cell example organisms
Bacteria and Archaea
Prokaryotes
lack membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotes
have membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic cell example organisms
Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists
Eukaryotic DNA
bound to proteins and linear, contained in nucleus
lipid function
component of cell membranes, insulation, energy storage
proteins
structural, enzyme catalysts, transport, defence, energy storage
Carbohydrate
Structural, energy storage, cell recognition
Nucleic acid
Encodes genetic information for construction and functioning
Important properties of water
Low viscosity, transparent, universal solvent, liquid at room temperature, high surface tension
Hydrolysis
Large molecules to small molecules by adding water
Condensation (dehydration)
Small molecules to large molecules by removing water
Plant cell distinctive features
cellulose cell wall, large vacuole, chloroplasts, regular geometric shape
Animal cell distinctive features
no cell wall, no rigid geometric shape, small vacuoles, no plastids
Prokaryotic cell boundary layers
plasma membrane, cell wall and capsule
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
carbohydrate, lipid and steroid synthesis
centrioles
role in organising nuclear division
cell compartmentalisation
Refers to organelles in eukaryotic cells acting as micro-environments allowing specific functions to be performed more efficiently.
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