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Chapter 7: The Ancient Greeks
Terms in this set (48)
A piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
A city-state in ancient Greece.
a public open space used for assemblies and markets
A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
a leader who held power through the use of force
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
relating to soldiers, arms, or war
one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens
the territory governed by an official known as a satrap
a governor of a province in the Persian Empire
One of the first monotheistic religions, particularly one with a wide following. It was central to the political and religious culture of ancient Persia.
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge; person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason
A Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea, southeast of Greece
A large peninsula at the western edge of Asia; also called Asia Minor
A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
the peninsula forming the southern part of the mainland of Greece
Greatest empire in the world up to 500 BCE. Spoke an Indo-European language. A multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire. Fell to Alexander the Great.
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
Persian emperor who organized and expanded the empire
The founder of Persia's classical pre-Islamic religion, Zoroastrianism.
a series of wars between Persia and Greece which began in 499 BC
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
(c. 519-465 BC) King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks.
Athenian statesman who persuaded Athens to build a navy and then led it to victory over the Persians (527-460 BC)
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
The Minoan civilization, on the island of Crete, lasted from about 2500 B.C. to 1450 B.C.
-Minoans were the first civilization to develop in the Aegean region
-Minoans were shipbuilders and traders
-Merchants traded with Egyptians and Syrians for ivory and metals.
The Mycenaean civilization developed on the Greek mainland starting around 2000 B.C.
-Mycenaean migrated from Asia to the Greek mainland
-They set up several kingdoms
-They adopted features of Minoan culture
-Mycenaean controlled the entire Aegean region by the 1400's B.C.
By the 1100's B.C., the Mycenaean civilization was over and a Dark Age lasted in Greece for the next 300 years.
Dorian's from the north entered Greece in the Dark Age. Their descendants were called Hellenes, meaning Greeks.
-Small communities developed under local leaders
-Hellenes traded food and goods with Egyptians and Phoenicians
-They developed an alphabet, which helped trade and allowed oral tales to be written down
-They used money to make trade easier.
Geography and Climate
Settlement and interaction between communities in Ancient Greece was affected by physical geography.
-Communities developed on the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas and surrounding islands
-The mild climate made farming and raising sheep and goats possible
-Travel between communities was difficult, which led to independent communities in the region.
Travel and Trade in the Mediterranean
Travel was difficult in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. Secure seaways were important for trade and communication.
-In the 1400's B.C., Minoan ships patrolled the seas to protect traders from pirates
-In the 400's B.C., the Athenian navy helped Athens become the most powerful Greek-city state
-Athenian supplies were cut off by the Spartans when the harbor was blockaded. This led to Sparta's victory over Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
Money and Trade after the Dark Age
Hellenes improved trade in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions by:
-Adopting and alphabet from the Phoenicians
-Using coins to pay for goods, instead of direct bartering
-Establishing Greek colonies throughout the Mediterranean region that traded with the Greek mainland.
Population and Trade
The population in Athens grew too large for the local farmers to supply enough food. Athenians traded the following for food and other goods:
An early Greek community was called a polis. Communities with the following characteristics developed in Greece, the Aegean islands, and the Anatolian peninsula.
-was a fortress built on a hilltop
-served as a refuge during enemy invasions
-had temples to honor local gods and goddesses.
-Was a market outside the acropolis where goods were exchanged
-was a meeting place
The polis was surrounded by villages and farmlands.
Citizenship in Early Greece
-Citizenship was limited to men who owned land
-Citizens could vote and serve the government in assemblies and on councils
-Citizens had to fight for their polis as citizen-soldiers.
Tyrants, Oligarchies, and Democracies
After the Dark Age, Greek city-states and colonies grew.City-states were controlled by nobles. By 650 B.C., Greeks were frustrated with the rule of nobles. In many places, people turned to one person to lead the polis with absolute power.
-Removed the nobles from power
-Built temples and markets to please the people
-Were eventually replaced with either an oligarchy or a democracy.
*Oligarchies had small groups of elders or powerful people who ran the government.
*Democracies allowed all citizens to participate in government.
Athens and Sparta: Government
-Was a democracy
-was ruled by an assembly open to all citizens and a council of 400 wealthy citizens
-did not allow foreigners or women to take part in government
-Was an oligarchy, ruled by two kings with little power
-Had two other governing bodies: the assembly and the council of elders
-held an annual election of five ephors from the council to enforce laws and manage tax collection
-did not allow its citizens to travel except for military purposes
-did not allow foreigners into their lands, except for enslaved people known as helots.
Athens and Sparta: Men and Women
- Women stayed home and only went on religious ceremonies or festivals
-Young girls were taught to be like their mothers
-Boys were educated with all subjects
-Women could own property and travel
-Women trained in sports
-Mothers would teach their sons to be soldiers when older
-Boys left at age 7 to join the military
-Men at age 20 entered the army
-Men could live at home at the age of 30
-Men retired from the military at the age of 60
The Persian Wars
The Persian Wars lasted from 499 B.C. to 449 B.C.
-They controlled the Greek cities in Anatolia and wanted to expand
-Athenians sent ships to Anatolia when Greek city-states revolted
-Persians sent an army to invade Greece
-Greek city-states joined together in the Delian League in 478 B.C. to protect themselves from outside invaders
-The Athenians gained control of the League.
Ancient Greece: 2000 B.C. To 400 B.C.
Greek civilization made many advances in its early history.
-Minoan and Greek traders interacted with other early civilizations
-Greek stories told in the oral tradition were written down when the Greeks adopted the alphabet
-Democratic governments were established in the region, where citizens could take part in government
-Greek art and thought developed in Athens and other city-states.
The Peloponnesian War
This war began in 431 B.C. and continued until 404 B.C.
-Athens took over the Delian League and demanded loyalty from other Greek city-states
-Sparta joined together with other city-states to rebel against Athenian control
-Greek city-states were destroyed or made very weak
-Trade plummeted and thousands left the region
-Sparta destroyed Athens
-All Greek city-states were vulnerable for attack from outside forces.
Pericles of Athens
Pericles was a leader in Athens at the time of the Peloponnesian war.
-He led Athens for 30 years
-Under his rule, Athens became a more democratic city by ignoring class differences
-Supported writers, artists, teachers, sculptors, and architects, as well as philosophers.
Solon, Peisistratus, and Cleisthenes
-three Archons that helped move Athens to democracy
-All three rulers supported citizens and non-citizens, they set all classes to equal and set laws to not enslave others.
-They gave enslaved people the opportunity to be HIRED and paid for their labor.
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